英语写作
文笔的磨练始于积累
如何磨练英语文笔

    一、第一是要措辞准确,熟悉写作中流行的套话,以及与热门话题或我国国情有关的概念的惯用表达。这就要多到学过的课文,读过的报刊杂志中去寻找,收集,一一记下来,试着在自己的习作中运用。平时若不积累,临时胡乱凑,文章质量就难以保证了。下面示范的就是这样的一些“收藏品”,通称流行语汇(catch phrase):

改善投资环境 improve the investment climate
社会风气 social morality
跳槽 job hopping
小康水平 well-to-do level
一切向钱看 put money above everything else
歪门邪道 crooked means
乡镇企业 rural enterprise
采取措施 take measures
中国国情 China’s actual conditions
自筹资金 self-raised funds
综合国力 the overall national strength
扭亏为盈 turn loss into gain
以权谋私 abuse power for personal gains
尽一份力 do one’s bit
不如人意 below expectation
充分肯定 highly appreciate
公务员 civil servant
个体户 self-employed
下岗人员 laid-off
困难职工 the needy
冠军争夺战 title decider
夺冠 take the crown
宏观调控 macro-control efforts
得天独厚 unique
互利合作 mutually-beneficial co-operation
促销 sales promotion
大案要案 major and serious criminal cases
打白条 issue an I. O. U.
早恋 puppy love
建成投产 up and running
人才市场 careers fair
人才流失 brain drain
回顾过去 in retrospect
展望未来 looking ahead
共识 shared understanding
致力于 be committed to
调整产业结构 readjust the industrial structure
和平共处 coexistence
自尊自强 self-respect and self-strengthening
基础设施 infrastructure
国际游资 international hot money
过度投机 excessive speculation
世界注目 attracting worldwide attention
平稳过渡 smooth transition
振奋民族精神 activate the national spirit
供不应求 in short supply
供大于求 Supply exceeds demand
适应新环境 adapt to new circumstances
滞销货 drug on the market
陶冶心性 cultivate one’s mind
煞费苦心 with great pains
毫无意义 make no sense
热门话题 hot topic
热烈的讨论 heated discussion
有关领导部门 the authorities concerned
彼此大不相同vary widely
各界人士 people from all walks of life
正当权益 the legitimate rights
地方风味小吃 local delicacies
贩毒 drug trafficking
基层组织 grass-root organs
法制观念 sense of law
任重而道远 much still remains to be done
沧海巨变 profound changes
消除误解 clear up misunderstandings
达成共识 reach common ground
强权政治 power politics
先决条件 prerequisite
一揽子交易 package deal
超前消费 premature consumption
首脑会议 summit
伙伴关系 partnership
中美关系 Sino-American relations
国际舞台 international arena
分裂祖国 split the motherland
合法政府 legal government
高度自治 high level autonomy
生存权 subsistence right
十分重视 attach great importance to …
战略眼光 strategic vision
强烈反差 sharp contrast (to)
小巧玲珑 small and delicate
高架桥 viaduct
高架路 elevated road
小品(剧) skit
色情电影 blue film
黄金时段 prime time
开门红 a good start
家庭教师 home tutor
无人售票 self-service
吸毒者/瘾君子 drug abuser
通缉犯 wanted man
爱管闲事的人 busybody
不晕船的人 good sailor
人手不足 short-handed
在广播中 on the air

    二、第二是要讲求措辞生动,行文流畅。近代语言理论家严复先生曾说:“言之无文,行之不远”,一篇好文章,一定要有闪光的文采。光注意了语法正确还不够,还要表述地道,写出以英语为母语的人看好的句子。做到这一点当然不容易,要下多年的功夫。最基本的功夫就是从报刊文章和牛津、朗文两本高级英汉双解词典中去收集妙语佳句,摘抄下来,有机会就把句中亮点用到自己的文章中去。下面是一些示范,例中黑体部分是值得采用的亮点。为便于读者学习,在每个例句后都附上汉语译文,文中划线部分是与英语例句中黑体部分对应的内容。

The state raised the purchasing price of grain by a big margin early this year to encourage grain production. 今年年初, 国家大幅度提高了粮食收购价以鼓励粮食生产.

In 1993, holders of associate degrees from junior colleges accounted for 47 per cent of all college graduates. 1993年大专文凭得主占全部大学毕业生的47%.

I don’t relish having to get up so early. 我可不乐意这么早就起床。

Just imagine that you have moved to the countryside. How wonderful to trade traffic jams for winding valley roads, skyscrapers for mountains, neon lights for star-filled nights! 想象一下你己经搬到乡村去了。你拿交通阻塞换来了蜿蜒的谷中小路, 拿摩天大楼换来了高山大岭, 拿霓虹灯换来了繁星满天的夜空, 那是多么好呀!

In the heats he clocked one minute 0.60 seconds to slice 0.35 seconds from the world mark set by Hungary’s Karoly Guttler, also in heats, in the 1993 European Championships in Sheffield, England. 在小组赛中,他游出了1分0秒60的成绩,将匈牙利选手卡罗里·古特勒1993年在英国谢菲尔德举行的欧洲锦标赛上, 同样是在小组赛中创造的世界纪录减少了0.35秒。

Reform of the court system will help guarantee fair judgement, enhance efficiency in case handling, and promote the clean-government campaign within the judicial sector, a senior judge said yesterday. 审判制度改革将有助于公正判决, 提高办案效率, 推进司法部门 廉政建设,一位高级法官昨天如是说。

His answer evidenced a guilty conscience. 他的回答证明他良心有愧。

She took exception to having to wait outside in the rain. 她得在雨中等候, 对此十分气愤。

She was winning easily, but then she started to get careless and let her opponent off the hook. 她赢得很顺利,可是跟着就大意起来了,对手转忧为喜。

They don’t keep anything from each other. 他们之间无话不谈。

He’s such a good athlete that most sports come naturally to him. 他擅长运动,多数运动项目对他来说都轻而易举。

He takes no pride in his work. 他对待工作马马虎虎。

His suitability for the post is open to question. 对这一职位他是否适宜很成问题。

三、第三是要在行文上力避母语思维。复旦大学蔡基刚先生在其近作《英汉写作对比研究》中指出:读我国大学生的作文,“总感到英语味道不浓。无论从文章的结构安排,还是语言的遣词造句,总摆脱不了汉语文化思维习惯和表达方式的影响。”蔡老师在书中列举了不少汉式英语的句子,值得同学们引以为戒:

1. 对词义不了解造成的错误:

吸烟会有害我们的身体。

错句:Smoking cigarettes will do harm to our body.

修改:Smoking cigarettes will do harm to our health.

他没说几句就让我们展开讨论。

错句:He only said a few sentences and the let us discuss.

修改:He said only a few wards and the let us discuss.

2. 对文化习俗不了解造成的错误:

他的讲座精心准备,生动有趣,我们不时捧腹大笑。

错句:His lectures was well-prepared and interesting. We often held our stomachs with laughter.

修改:His lectures was well-prepared and interesting. We often held our sides with laughter.

一个有雄心壮志的人能够把心都放在学习上。

错句:A man with ambition can put his heart into his study.

修改:A man with ambition can devote himself to his study.

3. 母语搭配习惯造成的错误:

他的脑子很聪明。

错句:His brain is very clever.

修改:He is very clever.

他年纪很轻。

错句:His age is very young.

修改:He is very young.

没有坚强的意志,就没有努力,就没有成功。

错句:No strong will, no hard work and no success.

修改:Without strong will, there would be no hard work, nor success.

    因此,我们不但要留心积累英语写作上的妙句佳词,还要注意积攒汉式英语的典型教训,在平时写作中逐一避免,以收防微杜渐之效。

    用外语写作不能光指望即席发挥,还要持之以恒地磨练文笔,而文笔的磨练始于积累。

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