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英语四六级考试听力长对话10大听前预测方法

发布时间:2008-11-12 14:54:53

听力题中很多选项都有比较明显的特点,或者使用某种专门的表达形式,如均为动词原形或均为人物角色等;或者含有一些标志性的词语,通过这些选项特点我们便可以推测问题可能考查的核心内容;另外,我们经常可以通过对选项的分析,排除一些比较明显的干扰性,缩小听音范围,从而在听音时更有针对性。

  一、各题主题揭示对话主题

  将各题所考查的主题内容结合在一起,往往可得出整篇对话的主题。如果某一题目是考查对话主题,其中的一个选项明显能够概括其他各题选项的内容,那么该选项很可能为答案。

  【例1】(710分样卷Conversation One)

  【预览选项】

  19. [A]To interview a few job applicants.

  [B]To fill a vacancy in the company.

  [C] To advertise for a junior sales manager.

  [D] To apply for a job in a major newspaper.

  20. [A]A hard working ambitious young man.

  [B]A young man good at managing his time.

  [C]A college graduate with practical working experience.

  [D]A young man with his own idea of what is important.

  21. [A]Not clearly specified.

  [B]Not likely to be met.

  [C]Reasonable enough.

  [D]Apparently sexist.

  【听前预测】

  预览三道题各选项,由19题中的interview, applicants, vacancy, advertise for a manager, apply for a job等词语可以推测对话与刊登招聘广告或应聘工作有关。而20题中hardworking, ambitious, good at managing his time, with practical working experience, with his own idea等词语则表明对话中还涉及到对所招聘人员的要求。

  二、选项均以动词的某种形式开头

  含有这类选项的问题为考查“行为活动”类型。根据动词的不同形式,问题考查的重点也可能不同。

  选项均以动词原形开头,问题大多是关于建议某人做某事,有时也表示为了而某种目的而要做某事。

  选项均为动名词,问题大多是关于正在进行的动作或者计划打算。

  选项为不定式,问题很可能是关于做某事的目的,或是计划、承诺或要求做某事。

  【例2】(新06-12- -20)

  【预览选项】

  [A] File a lawsuit against the man.

  [B] Ask the man for compensation.

  [C] Have the man’s apple tree cut down.

  [D] Throw garbage into the man’s yard.

  【听前预测】

  选项均为动词原形,故本题应该是考查某人的行为活动。四个选项均是针对男士的行为,故本题很可能是关于某人与男士发生争吵或冲突时所采取的应对措施。

  【听音验证】

  …

  W: Get the branches off my property or I’ll have to sue you.

  M: Yeah? For what?! You’re taking those law classes too seriously! I’ve gotta go, I have to pick up my son.

  …

  21. What did the woman threaten to do?

  【例3】(710分样卷-19)

【预览选项】

  [A]To interview a few job applicants.

  [B]To fill a vacancy in the company.

  [C] To advertise for a junior sales manager.

  [D] To apply for a job in a major newspaper.

  【听前预测】

  选项均为不定式短语,故本题应该是考查某人将要采取的行动。[ A ]、[ C ]是关于招聘工作(interview, advertise),[ B ]、[ D]则是关于申请工作(fill, apply for),故听音时应留意该行为是关于招聘还是应聘。

  【听音验证】

  M: Morning, Brenda.

  W: Good morning, Mr. Browning.

  M: Er, did you, did you put that ad in yesterday?

  W: Yes, yesterday afternoon.

  M: The ad for a junior sales manager, I mean.

  …

  19. What did Mr. Browning ask Brenda to do?

  三、选项中含有表示意愿或建议的词

  如果选项中含有should, had better, would like等一类的词语,问题很可能是考查“观点或建议”。

  【例4】(新06-12-25)

  【预览选项】

  [A] Accurate communication is of utmost importance.

  [B] Pilots should be able to speak several foreign languages.

  [C] Air controllers should keep a close watch on the weather.

  [D] Cooperation between pilots and air controllers is essential.

  【听前预测】

  由选项中的should可推知,本题应该是考查某人的观点或建议。选项内容表明问题应该与确保安全飞行的因素有关。

  【听音验证】

  …

  M: Sadly enough, yes they did. It was a really bad mistake. Many people died as a result of the simple misunderstanding.

  W: Wow, that’s a powerful lesson on how important it can be to accurately communicate to each other.

  …

  25. What lesson could be drawn from the accident?

  四、选项中含有表示评论或感受的动词

  如果选项中含有think, like, dislike, enjoy, agree, disagree, mind等一类的词语,听力材料或问题很可能是关于对某人或某事物的评价或感受。

  四个选项中如均含有表示评论或感受的词,则表示问题是关于对人或事物的评价或感受;如其中只有个别选项含有表示评论或感受的词,则表示听力材料中很可能涉及到对人或事物的评价或感受,问题内容则不一定会涉及。

  【例5】(710分样卷-21)

【预览选项】

  [A]Not clearly specified.

  [B]Not likely to be met.

  [C]Reasonable enough.

  [D]Apparently sexist.

  【听前预测】

  四个选项中均含有表示评论的词语(specified, reasonable等),故问题很可能是关于某人对某事物的看法。

  【听音验证】

  W: Yes, erm, what sort of education are you actually looking for?

  M: Well, you know, a couple of A levels. Must have English, of course.

  W: Yes, I think you’re asking quite a lot. I mean you’re not really prepared to pay all ...

  M: No, I’m not prepared to give him a big salary to start with. Nevertheless, I want someone with plenty of ambition, plenty of drive. You know, not looking at the clock all the time.

  W: Well sir, I wish you the best of luck and hope you have some very successful interviews.

  M: Well, yes?

  W: Because personally I think you’re asking an awful lot.

  21. What does Brenda think of the qualifications Mr. Browning insists on?

  五、选项中含有比较结构

  如果选项中含有形容词或副词的比较级或最高级,或是其他表示比较的词语,则听力材料或问题很可能涉及人或事物之间的异同点或优劣的比较。

  四个选项中如均含有比较级或表示比较的词,则表示问题是关于人或事物之间的比较;如其中只有个别选项中含有比较级,则表示听力材料中很可能涉及到人或事物之间的比较,问题内容则不一定会涉及。

  【例6】(710分样卷-22)

  【预览选项】

  [A] Their competitors have long been advertising on TV.

  [B]TV commercials are less expensive.

  [C] Advertising in newspapers alone is not sufficient.

  [D] TV commercials attract more investments.【听前预测】

  由选项中的advertising on TV,advertising in newspapers以及比较级less expensive, attact more可知本题很可能涉及到电视广告和报纸广告之间优劣的比较。故听音时应留意比较级或其他陈述二者优劣特点的词句。

  【听音验证】

  W: Marketing has some interesting ideas for television commercials.

  M: TV? Isn't that a bit too expensive for us? What's wrong with advertising in the papers, as usual?

  W: Quite frankly, it's just not enough anymore.

  ……

  22. Why does the woman suggest advertising on TV?

  六、选项均为名词性短语

  如选项均为概括性较强的名词或是名词性的短语,且各项内容差异较大,问题则很可能是关于对话所谈论的主题或对话中出现的某一事件或问题的主题。

  【例7】(710分样卷-22)

【预览选项】

  [A]The latest developments of an armed rebellion in Karnak.

  [B]The fall of Karnak’s capital city into the hands of the rebel forces.

  [C]The epidemic that has just broken out in the country of Karnak.

  [D]The peace talks between the rebels and the government in Karnak.

  【听前预测】

  选项均为名词短语,且概括性均较强,故本题很可能考查对话的主旨。由armed rebellion,the rebel forces,peace talks between the rebels and the government等词以及多次出现的Karnak可推知本对话很可能与Karnak国反政府武装叛乱有关。

  【听音验证】

  W: We now interrupt our regular scheduled news program to bring you live up-to-date coverage on the civil unrest in the newly formed country of Karnak, where our man Stan Fielding is stationed. Stan ...

  M: This is Stan Fielding reporting live from the suburbs of the capital city. Just 20 minutes ago, rebel forces launched the biggest offensive against the ruling government in the 18- month conflict here in this country.

  ……

  22.What is the news coverage mainly about?

  七、与对话主题或其余选项内容不同的选项往往不是答案

  如果某一选项明显与对话主题不相关,那么该选项往往不是答案。

  如果某一选项明显与其他三个选项内容不同,即与该题主题明显不相关的选项往往不是答案。

  【例8】(新06-12- 19)

  【预览选项】

  19. [A] He picked up some apples in his yard.

  [B] He cut some branches off the apple tree.

  [C] He quarreled with his neighbor over the fence.

  [D] He cleaned up all the garbage in the woman’s yard.

  20. [A] Trim the apple trees in her yard.

  [B] Pick up the apples that fell in her yard.

  [C] Take the garbage to the curb for her.

  [D] Remove the branches from her yard.

  21. [A] File a lawsuit against the man.

  [B] Ask the man for compensation.

  [C] Have the man’s apple tree cut down.

  [D] Throw garbage into the man’s yard.

  22. [A] He was ready to make a concession.

  [B] He was not prepared to go to court.

  [C] He was not intimidated.

  [D] He was a bit concerned.

【听前预测】

  由各选项中的apple, tree, yard, branches, trim(修剪)等词可推知对话主题应该与苹果树枝条和院子有关,再根据选项中出现的quarreled, lawsuit(诉讼), compensation(赔偿), concession(让步), court(法庭)等词可推知对话还可能涉及到对话双方的争吵。

  19题各选项中谓语动词的过去式形式表明本题应该是考查男士过去的活动。[A]、[B]、[C]均与苹果树和院子有关,只有[C]是关于fence(栅栏),与其他三项内容差别较大,且与其他各题选项内容均不相关,故[C]为答案的可能性较小。

  【听音验证】

  W: Hello, Patrick, is that you?

  M: Yeah, Jane, what can I do for you?

  W: I was calling about the apple tree that you were trimming yesterday.

  M: That was hard work!

  ……【答案解析】

  19. What did the man do yesterday?

  【解析】选[B]。由女士话中的the apple tree that you were trimming yesterday可知男士昨天给苹果树剪枝了。trim意为“修剪,修整”。

  八、包含其他选项内容的选项往往不是答案

  有的选项明显包含其他选项的含义,那么该选项往往不是答案。

  【例9】(托福)

  【预览选项】

  [A] She was impressed by it.

  [B] It was a waste of money.

  [C] She was amazed it had opened so soon.

  [D] She didn’t like it as much as the other wings.【听前预测】

  由选项中的impressed, a waste of money, amazed, like 等可推知本题是针对对某事物的看法设题的。选项[A]说“it”给她留下了深刻印象,选项[C]说她对“it”这么快就开张(或开放)感到吃惊,其含义包含[A]的含义在内,故[C]很可能不是答案。

  【听音验证】

  M: Hey, how was your trip?

  W: Wonderful. I spent most of my time at the art museum. I especially liked the new wing. I was amazed to hear the guide explain all the problems they had building it.

  ……【答案解析】

  34.What did the woman think of the new wing of the museum?

  【解析】 选[A]。细节题。由对话中出现的 amazed, unusual, impressive等可知女士对美术馆新侧厅的修建费用以及修建过程中的种种问题大感吃惊,并且对里面的设计印象非常深刻,故答案为[A]。

  九、明显不符常理的选项往往不是答案

  有的选项明显不符合该对话情景下的常识或常理,那么该选项往往也不是答案。

  【例10】(新06-12-25)

  【预览选项】

  [A] Accurate communication is of utmost importance.

  [B] Pilots should be able to speak several foreign languages.

  [C] Air controllers should keep a close watch on the weather.

  [D] Cooperation between pilots and air controllers is essential.

【听前预测】

  由选项中的should可推知,本题应该是考查观点或建议。选项内容表明问题应该与确保安全飞行的因素有关。[B]是说飞行员应该会说几门外语,这不大合乎常理,因为飞国内行线的飞行员并不一定要会好几门外语,故[B]为答案的可能性较小。

  【听音验证】

  …

  M: Sadly enough, yes they did. It was a really bad mistake. Many people died as a result of the simple misunderstanding.

  W: Wow, that’s a powerful lesson on how important it can be to accurately communicate to each other.【答案解析】

  25. What lesson could be drawn from the accident?

  【解析】选[A]。对话的最后女士总结了这次事故的教训:how important it can be to accurately communicate to each other,答案是对此的同义转述。utmost意为“极大的”。

  十、意思相近的选项往往都不是答案

  如果有两个选项意思明显相近,那么这两个选项往往都不是答案。

  【例11】(新06-12-22)

  【预览选项】

  [A] He was ready to make a concession.

  [B] He was not prepared to go to court.

  [C] He was not intimidated.

  [D] He was a bit concerned.

  【听前预测】

  由选项中的concession(让步),go to court, intimidate(威胁), concerned(担心)等词可推测问题应该与男士对某事的反应有关。[A]是说他准备让步,[B]是说他不准备上法庭,二者都表示男士要“妥协退让”的含义,故很可能都不是答案。

  【听音验证】

  …

  M: Get the branches off my property or I’ll have to sue you.

  M: Yeah? For what?! …

  W: You’ll be hearing from me.

  M: Yeah, yeah. See you in court, Jane.

  【答案解析】

  22. What was the man’s reaction to the woman’s threat?

  【解析】选[C]。女士说让男士等着收法庭的传票(hear from me),男士的回答“Yeah, yeah. See you in court(法庭见)”表明他根本not intimidated(不怕威胁)。

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