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2008年12月英语四六级考试写作策略分析

发布时间:2008-11-26 09:55:56

写作结尾:

  一、重复中心思想

  结尾回到文章开头阐明的中心思想或主题句上,使首尾遥相互应。增强语言表达力度,达到再次肯定和强调的作用。但不要为结束文章而单纯的重复起始的文字。

  二、作出结论

  文章最后用几句话提纲挈领地概括全文内容,中肯切要,并进一步肯定文章的中心思想、作者的观点。

  三、引经据典

  用格言、谚语或习语等富有哲理性的语句总结全文,既言简意赅又有很强的说服力。此种结尾方法给人以语言平淡而情感强烈的印象,让人读来顿生感悟,具有启发思维的作用。还可使用修辞手法,通过套用句型、改变词语来灵活用典。

  四、反问结尾

  用反问提出问题供读者思考的结尾方式,间接阐述作者的观点。以反问结束全文,发人深省,令人回味,引发读者思考。

  五、提出展望或期望

  各抒几见:

  1) Almost everyone would agree that the birth / appearance / arrival / development of sth.… 2) But this agreement ceases to exist just when it comes to…(议论的主题)

  3) Many / Some people contend / believe / argue that… (一方观点) 4) They base their contention / belief / argument on the grounds that… (理由I) 5)Besides, as they often point out, ... (理由II) 6)Yet others react to the issue / matter the other way around and hold / assert that the opposite is just reasonable / more acceptable. (另一方观点) 7) From their angle of view, … (理由I) 8) And even worse, as they claim, … (理由II)

  9) I am of / adhere to / stick to the opinion / view / truth that anything new, including…, can bring human society fortunes / merits / advantages or misfortunes / demerits / disadvantages, all depending on ... (我的看法) 10) On the one hand, … (理由I) 11) But on the other, ... (理由II) 12) In short, the key / solution to the problem is always controlled in …

  原因分析:

  1)As can be seen from the graph / table / diagram, there have been drastic / considerable / unfavorable changes in …(议论的主题)over the past period from __ to __.

  2) To be concrete, …only… in __(year) while / whereas the ratio(s) went up to…in __ (year).(变化概述)

  3) These changes are most disturbing, so it is necessary for us to go into the whys and wherefores of them first.

  4) Some changes, such as …, result from …, but many others have much to do with …

  5) In the first place, man’s excessive exploitation of … has done a lasting damage to …, only to … (原因分析I)

  6) … (进一步说明)

  7) In the second, in order to …, man has had to overwork …, which in turn has accelerated … (原因分析II)

  8) In the third, man’s blind application of … has caused permanent changes in …(原因分析III)

  9) Among these changes are ... (进一步说明)

  10) The list of causes could go on, but they are already enough to indicate that these changes are producing more and more negative effects on the world.

  11) These changes not only …, but also…(分析)

  12) If allowed to run its course, I firmly believe / I am afraid, this trend will certainly bring more harm / threats to our society / life.(结论句)

  英语图表写作套用精选:

  1.the table shows the changes in the number of……over the period from……to……

  该表格描述了在……年之……年间……数量的变化。

  2.the bar chart illustrates that……   该柱状图展示了……

  3.the graph provides some interesting data regarding…该图为我们提供了有关……有趣数据。

4.the diagram shows (that)……  该图向我们展示了……

  5.the pie graph depicts (that)……  该圆形图揭示了……

  6.this is a cure graph which describes the trend of……这个曲线图描述了……的趋势。

  7.the figures/statistics show (that)……  数据(字)表明……

  8.the tree diagram reveals how……  该树型图向我们揭示了如何……

  9.the data/statistics show (that)……  该数据(字)可以这样理解……

  10.the data/statistics/figures lead us to the conclusion that…这些数据资料令我们得出结论……

  11.as is shown/demonstrated/exhibited in the diagram/graph/chart/table……  如图所示……

  12.according to the chart/figures……  根据这些表(数字)……

  13.as is shown in the table……  如表格所示……

  14.as can be seen from the diagram,great changes have taken place in……  从图中可以看出,……发生了巨大变化。

  15.from the table/chart/diagram/figure,we can see clearly that……or it is clear/apparent from the chart that……从图表我们可以很清楚(明显)看到……

  16.this is a graph which illustrates……  这个图表向我们展示了……

  17.this table shows the changing proportion of a & b from……to……该表格描述了……年到……年间a与b的比例关系。

  18.the graph,presented in a pie chart, shows the general trend in……  该图以圆形图形式描述了……总的趋势。

  19.this is a column chart showing……  这是个柱型图,描述了……

  20.as can be seen from the graph,the two curves show the flutuation of……如图所示,两条曲线描述了……的波动情况。

  21.over the period from……to……the……remained level.  在……至……期间,……基本不变。

  22.in the year between……and……  在……年到……期间……

  23.in the 3 years spanning from 1995 through 1998……  1995年至1998三年里……

  24.from then on/from this time onwards……  从那时起……

  25.the number of……remained steady/stable from (month/year) to (month/year)。……月(年)至……月(年)……的数量基本不变。

  26.the number sharply went up to……  数字急剧上升至……

  27.the percentage of……stayed the same between……and ……至……期间……的比率维持不变

  28.the figures peaked at……in(month/year)  ……的数目在……月(年)达到顶点,为……

  29.the percentage remained steady at……  比率维持在……

  30.the percentage of……is sightly larger/smaller than that of……  ……的比例比……的比例略高(低)。

  31.there is not a great deal of difference between……and……  ……与……的区别不大。

  32.the graphs show a threefold increase in the number of……该图表表明……的数目增长了三倍

  33……decreased year by year while……increased steadily.  ……逐年减少,而……逐步上升。

  34.the situation reached a peak(a high point at) of[%].  ……的情况(局势)到达顶(高)点,为……百分点。

  35.the figures/situation bottomed out in……  数字(情况)在……达到底部。

  36.the figures reached the bottom/a low point/hit a trough.  数字(情况)达到底部(低谷)。

  37.a is ……times as much/many as b.  a是b的……倍。

38.a increased by……  a增长了……

  39.a increased to……  a增长到……

  40.high/low/great/small/ percentage.  比低高(低)

  41.there is an upward trend in the number of……  ……数字呈上升趋势。

  42.a considerable increase/decrease occurred from……to……  ……到……发生急剧上升。

  43.from……to……the rate of decrease slow down.  从……到……,下降速率减慢。

  44.from this year on,there was a gradual declinel reduction in the……,reaching a figure of……

  从这年起,……逐渐下降至……

  45.be similar to……  与……相似

  46.be the same as……  与……相同

  47.there are a lot similarities/differences between……and……  ……与……之间有许多相似(不同)之处

  48.a has something in common with b  a与b有共同之处。

  49.the difference between a and b lies in……  a与b之间的差别在于……

  50……(year)witnessed/saw a sharp rise in……  ……年……急剧上升

  批驳分析:

  With the arrival / birth of …, sth. is becoming more and more … in our life. 2) Hit / Affected with this trend, some / many people come to believe / contend that ...(错误观念) 3) But their viewpoint / belief could not arouse any echo in my mind.(作者的立场)

  4) It is true that sth. is a key ingredient in one’s …(让步法分析) 5) On any scale of …, in fact, there is almost nothing heavier than sth.. 6) If we see sth. in its true colors, however, it isnothing but… (批驳分析I) 7) ... (进一步阐述) 8) And moreover, laying any undue stress on sth. may lead one to …, as can be easily seen in the cases of …(批驳分析II)

  9) Therefore, it is necessary to take a correct attitude towards sth. 10) On the one hand, … (正确看法I) 11) On the other, ... (正确看法II) 12) In sum, sth. means …but not … to our life. (结论句)

  What Attitude Should We Take to Money

  分析建议:

  1) As is known to all, sth. does bring a lot of benefits to sb. / sth. else. 2) First, it can greatly strengthen …, thereby changing …for the better.(正面分析I) 3) Besides, it can make /render sb. / sth. else better able to… (正面分析II) 4) And best of all, it can help sb.…(正面分析III)

  5)But all the above does not mean / follow that we can turn a blind eye to the negative effects sth. brings about. 6) If…, as a successionof scientific studies reveals / implies / suggests, there are more chances that… (负面分析I) 7) In addition, the more ..., the worse... (负面分析II) 8) And worst of all, … (负面分析III)

  9) Therefore, a scientific approach must be adopted to the problem of sth. 10) On the one hand, …(建议I) 11) On the other, ... (建议II) 12) In sum, sth. can do sb. / sth. else good or harm, all depending on … (结论句)

  理由陈述:

  Something may be many things to many people. 2) Some may see it as …while others may view it as …(人们的看法举例) 3) As far as I am concerned, however, I would prefer to value it as … (我的看法)

  4) My insight into sth.(My outlook on sth. / My understanding of sth.) is bound up with three major factors. 5) Primarily, sth. is so …that …(理由I) 6) …(进一步阐述) 7) Secondly, sth. is also … (理由II) 8) ... (进一步阐述) 9) And most of all, …(理由III) 10) …(进一步阐述)

  11) I have (not) much freedom / option in this matter, but I have never found any other way of seeing sth. more reasonable and acceptable than mine. 12) Thus, I will leave no stone unturned during the course of … in order to pave the way for ...

  前车之鉴——学生在拟定提纲时常见问题。

  1. 理解题意后,提笔就写,觉得列提纲可有可无。

  2. 看到题目已有中/英文提纲或提示,就不再另写提纲。

  2. 部分学生认为写提纲会浪费时间

写作策略:

  1. 拟提纲的过程即是快速打腹稿的过程。准备提纲要占总思考工作量的百分之六十,因为一旦决定了素材的取舍、对文章的整体结构胸有成竹,真正动笔省劲省时。许多临场作文初稿即定稿,一稿定分数。写到中间停笔琢磨会耗费时间。完稿后再核查文章是否切题、论点是否明确、论据是否充分有力、论证是否严密等为时已晚。届时发现有误也难于进行大的调整。

  2. 最好把打开思路时出现在头脑里的、与段落主题密切相关的想法逐一草记下来。为最大限度地节省时间,草写提纲由关键词(多为名词或名词性词组)、短语或自己能辨别的缩写、符号组成。

  3.拟定提纲时,同学们对以下方面需均衡考虑:各段具体写什么,从哪儿开始,如何点题,如何开头,用什么事实或例证,有哪些闪光的语汇可以利用,文章怎样发展,怎样转折,怎样有个有力的结尾等。通过围绕题意列提纲,能巩固开拓思路的成果,挖掘材料的内涵。

  4. 列入提纲的各段要点经快速归纳,整理成简练的条目形式并用符号标明层次,如P1(Para. 1第一段)、 P2、 P3; a).b).c)…;(1).(2).(3)…等。

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