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    当前位置:自学考试 > 课程辅导 > 串讲笔记 > 正文

    自考“英语语法”基础材料发布时间:2007-06-29 15:18:22
    英语的句子成分一般包括主语、谓语、宾语、定语、状语、补语、同位语等。

      1.主语(Subject)

      主语是句子的主体,是句子所要说明的人或事物。主语通常是一些代表事物性或实    体性的问语。如:

      Bookkeeping is all essential accounting tool.   簿记是会计的基本工具。

      除了名词可担任主语外,还有代词、数词、动词不定式、动名词、从句均可作主语,如

      He works in a big company.  他在一家大公司工作。

      To drive car needs some knowledge of its performance. 要开汽车须对其性能有所了解。

      Advertising is a way of bringing information to the public for the purpose of selling a product.    广告是一种给公众提供信息的方式,目的在于推销产品。

      Whatever was said hear must be kept secret.    在这里所谈的一切都要保密。

      2.谓语(Predicate)

      谓语说明主语“做什么”、“是什么”或“怎么样”。

      I have read “Romance of the West Chamber”。  我看过《西厢记》

      Silent words of love acre passing between us.   无声的情话在我们之间交流。

      We should promote our friendship on such a basis.    我们应该在这样的基础上促进我们的友谊。

      They are dancing.  他们在跳舞。

      3.宾语(Object)

      宾语表示动作的对象,是主语的动作的承受者,有宾语的动词称为及物动词,宾语一般在及物动词之后,作宾语的词有名词,代词宾格,数词、动词不定式、动名词、复合结构、从句等,如:

      Trust the students.    相信学生们吧。

      Don't have anything more to do with him.    别再和他来往了。

      How many do you need? We need ten.    你需要多少?十个。

      They are planning to see the sights of Chongqing tomorrow.    他们打算明天游览重庆的名胜。

      He dreamt of meeting and falling in love with a beautiful woman.     他梦想遇上并爱上美丽的女人。

      You will find the pain easing up in a few hours.  几个小时以后你就会发觉疼痛慢慢减轻了。

      We must find out ] who signed the contract.    我们要找出是谁签的合同。

      4.定语 (Attribute)

      定语是用来修饰名词或代词的。如:

      A small business may employ only one bookkeeper.     小企业可以只雇用一个簿记员。

      除形容词之外,数词、名词所有格、动词不定式、介词短语、分词短语、动名词、副词、从句等,都可作定语。

      There is some exciting news on the newspaper today.    今天报上有令人兴奋的消息。

      Every Saturday Mr. Black goes to the supermarket to do shopping.    每星期六,布莱克先生都去超级市场购物。

      See the statement above.    见上文。

      The faded flowers covered the ground.    地上满是凋谢的花朵。

      It's a firm that specializes in hand-made furniture.  那是一家专门经营手工家具的公司。

      5.状语 (Adverbial)

      状语是用来修饰动词、形容词、副词的,表示时间、地点、原因、方式、程度等。

      作状语的词有副词或相当于副词的其它词、短语、从句。如:

      Accounting is one of the fastest growing fields in modern business world.  会计是现代商业领域中发展最快的部门之一。

      To explain the difference briefly, the accountant sets up a bookkeeping system.    为了简洁地解释差异现象,会计师建立起簿记系统。

      Personally, I hope you will make a holiday tour with me.    就我个人而言,我希望你能和我一起作一次假日旅游。

      He was disappointed because his love of her was unrequited.    他感到失望,因为他对她的爱没有得到报答。

      Seeing this, they became very worried.    看到这种情况,他们心里很着急。

      Taken in time, the medicine will be quite effective.    如果吃得及时,这药是很有效的。

      6.同位语(Appositive)

      同位语用来对一个词或词的内容加以补充和说明。它通常位于其说明的词或词组之后。

      We Americans are hard-working.  我们美国人是勤劳的。

      You two are very lazy.    你们两个很懒。

      Winston Churchill, Britain's Prime Minister during the Second World War, died in 1965. 第二次世界大战中的英国首相温斯顿。邱吉尔死于1965年。

      Shanghai, once the paradise for adventurers, is now the largest industrial base in China. 曾经是冒险家乐园的上海,现在是中国最大的工业基地。

      7.补语 (Complement)

      (1)英语中有些及物动词虽然有了宾语,但句子的意思仍不完整,还需要在宾语之后增加一个成分以补足其意义,这种成分叫宾语补语。能作宾语补语的有名词、形容词、介词短语、副词、动词不定式、分词。

      They appointed him head of the department.    他们任命他当部门主任。

      They painted the wall blue.    他们把墙刷成蓝色。

      People regard the sun as the chief source of heat and light.    人们认为太阳是主要的热源和光源。

      (2)当带有宾语的句子变成被动语态,句子原来的宾语就成了主语,而原来的宾补也就随之成了主补。试比较:

      They appointed him head of the department.

      He was appointed head of the department.

      They painted the wall blue.

      The wall was painted blue.

      People regard the sun as the chief source of heat and light.

      The sun is regarded as the chief source of heat and light.

    第二节  词类和构词法

      1.词类

      英语中的单词可以根据词义、句法作用和形式特征分为十大词类:

    词 类  英语名称  作 用  例 词 
    名 词  Noun
    (缩写为n.) 
    表示人或事物的名称  party政党
    China中国 
    代 词  Pronoun
    (pron.) 
    用来代替名词、形容词或数词等  he他
    that那 
    数 词  Numeral
    (num.) 
    表示数量或顺序  One一
    first第一 
    形容词  Adiective
    (adj.) 
    用来修饰名词,表示人或事物的特征、性质  safe安全
    great伟大 
    副 词  Adverb
    (adv.) 
    用来修饰动词、形容词或其他副词,表示动作或性状的特征  hard艰苦
    here这里 
    冠 词  Article
    (ad.) 
    用在名词前,帮助说明名词所指的人或事物  an, a
    the 
    动 词  Verb
    (v.) 
    表示人或事物的动作或状态  eat吃
    have有 
    介 词  Preposition
    (prep。) 
    用在名词、代词等前面,说明句子中词与词之间的关系  under在……下
    in在……里 
    连 词  Conjunction
    (conj.) 
    用来连接词、短语或句子  and和
    but但是 
    感叹词  Interjection
    (interj.) 
    表示说话时的感情或口气  hello喂
    why呃,嗨 

      2.构词法

      词的构成有一定的规律,这种规律称为构词法。英语构司法主要有三种:派生、合成和转化。

      (1)派生:通过在词根上加前缀或后缀构成另一个词。

      ① 后缀

       后 缀  例 词 


    词 
    -er
    -or
    -ese
    -ian
    -ist
    -ment
    -ness
    -bon
    -ing
    -ship
    -age
    -ty
    -th
    -ance
    -ence
    -ful
    -al 
    farmer农夫weaver编织者 pain-killer止痛药
    conductor售票员 sailor水手 transistor晶体管
    Chinese中国人 Portuguese葡萄牙人 Pekinese北京人
    musician音乐家 Egyptian埃及人 physician物理学家
    scientist科学家 dentist牙医 communist共产党员
    argument争议judgment判断government政府
    happiness幸福greatness伟大coldness寒冷
    dictation听写preparation准备 repetition重复
    building建筑wedding婚礼painting绘画
    leadership领导friendship友谊hardship艰苦
    shortage短缺marriage婚姻leakage泄漏
    loyalty忠诚 cruelty残酷 penalty惩罚
    truth事实warmth温暖length长度 ,
    acceptance接受 assistance帮助 reliance信任
    dependence依靠confidence信心 reference参考
    mouthful一口 handful满手plateful满盘
    refusal拒绝denial否认arrival到达 


    词 
    -al
    -an
    -ern
    -ble
    -ful
    -ish
    -ive
    -y
    -less
    -en
    -ous
    -ary
    -ic
    -some
    -like
    -ant 
    central中央的 industrial工业的 national国家的
    European欧洲的 American美国的 Australian澳大利亚的
    eastern东方的 northern北方的 southern南方的
    reasonable合理的 horrible可怕的 terrible可怕的
    cheerful快乐的 grateful感谢的 faithful忠实的
    childish孩子的 Swedish瑞典的 selfish自私的
    destructive毁灭的 collective集体的 active积极的
    thirsty渴的 dirty脏的 windy有风的
    careless粗心的 homeless无家的 fearless不害怕的
    golden金色的 wooden木头的 woolen毛的
    courageous勇敢的 famous著名的 contirluou8持续的
    imaginary想象的 revolutionary革命的 secondary第二的
    realistic现实的 historic历史的 poetic诗的
    troublesome麻烦的 burdensome累赘的 lonesome孤独的
    childlike孩子般的 womanlike像女人的 manlike男子似的
    ignorant无知的 significant重要的 observant当心的 

    词 
    -ize
    -en
    -ify 
    realize实现 modernize使现代化 mechanize使机械化
    widen扩展 strengthen加强 lengthen加长
    simplify使简单化 beautify使美化 terrify使害怕 

    词 
    -ly
    -ward(s)
    ·wise 
    perfectly完美地 happily幸福地 terribly可怕地
    towards朝onward向前backward向后
    otherwise否则 likewise同样地 lengthwise纵长地 

    词 
    -teen
    -ty
    -th 
    thirteen十三fifteen十五 eighteen十八
    forty四十 sixty六十 twenty二十
    ninth第九 tenth第十 twentieth第二十 

      ② 前缀

    前 缀  意 思  例 词 
    a-
    dis-
    un-
    en-
    il-,in-
    im-,ir-
    mis-
    re- 
    处在……
    不,否定

    做相反动作
    使可能
    不,非

    错误的,坏的
    重复,再 
    arise升起 aside在旁边 alone单独的
    dissatisfy不满意 dishonest不诚实 disappear消失
    unable不能 unknown未知的 uncommon不平常的
    unclose打开 undress脱衣服 uncover揭开
    enrich使富裕 enable使能够 enslave使做奴隶
    illogical不合逻辑的 inactive不活跃的 incapable无能的
    impossible不可能的 impatient不耐烦的 irresponsible不负责的
    misdoings坏事 misunderstand误解 misfortune不幸
    rewrite重写 remarry再婚reunite再联合 
    tele-
    inter-
    non-
    de-
    co-
    anti-
    ex- 
    远程
    相互,之间
    不,非
    向相反方向发展
    共同
    反(对)
    以前的 
    telephone电话telegraph电报telescope望远镜
    international国际的 interact互相作用 interchange互换
    non-existent不存在 non-interference不干涉 non-conductor非导体
    decentralize分散 demobilize使复员 defrost解冻
    co-exist共存 co-operate合作 co-education男女同校
    anti-fascist反法西斯 anti-tank反坦克 anti-freeze防冻剂
    ex-husband前夫 ex-president前总统 ex-serviceman退役军人 

      (2)合成(Composition):由两个或更多的词合成一个新词。

      ①合成形容词

      构成方式       例  词

      形容词+名词+ed    middle-aged中年的  cold-blooded冷血的

      形容词+现在分词    free-thinking有自由思想的  strong-looking外貌健壮的

      副词+现在分词    hard-working勤劳的  far-seeing有远见的

      名词+现在分词    freedom-loving爱好自由的  job-hunting找工作的

      名词+过去分词    water-covered被水覆盖的  man-made人造的

      副词+过去分词    quickly-cured迅速治愈的  well-known熟知的

      形容词+名词    first-class头等的  full-time专职的

      名词+形容词    world-famous世界闻名的  day-long整天的

      ②合成名词

      构成方式    例  词

      名词+名词    horseback马背  bank-note钞票

      形容词+名词    back-yard后院  forehead前额

      动名词+名词    hiding-place躲藏处  reading-room阅览室

      动词+名词    workshop车间  copybook习字本

      名词+动名词    waterskiing 滑水运动  handwriting书法

      动词+副词    get-off起飞  break-in闯入

      副词+动词    output产量  overflow泛滥

      ③合成动词

      构成方式    例  词

      名词+动词    daydream空想

      副词+动词    overcome克服  upturn翻起

      形容词+动词    white-wash粉刷

      ④合成副词和代词

      however  maybe  wherever  forever

      himself    everyone    nobody    myself    something

      (3)转化:指一个词不变化词形,而由一种词类转化为另一种或几种词类。

      ①名词转化为动词

      center(n.)中心    center(v.)集中

      ②名词转化为形容词

      Asian(n.)亚洲人——Asian(adj.)亚洲的

      surplus(n.)过剩——surplus(adj.)过剩的

      ③动词转化为名词

      break(v.)打破——break(n.)间歇

      ④动词转化为副词

      close (v.)关上 —— close(adv.)靠近

      ⑤形容词转化为动词

      clear(adj.)明确的——clear(v.)清除

      ⑥形容词转化为代词

      all (adj.)全部的——all (pron.)全体

      ⑦形容词转化为副词

      hard(adj.)坚硬的——hard(adv.)努力地

      ⑧形容词转化为名词

      cold(adj.)冷——cold(n.)感冒

      ⑨连词转化为介词、副词

      but(conj.)但是——but(prep.)除了

      ——(adv.)仅仅

      ⑩介词转化为副词

      by (prep.)在……旁边——by(adv.)在一旁

    第三节  形容词和副词

      形容词修饰的是名词或代词,表示人或事物的性质、特征或状态。形容词在句子中

      作定语、表语或宾语补足语。

      Once a rich woman invited Martin Brown,a famous singer,to her house.    一次,一个有钱的妇女邀请一位著名的歌唱家马丁。布朗到她家去。    (作定语)

      These ideas may seem strange to you.    这些设想你也许觉得很新奇。(作表语)

      They keep their room clean.    他们经常保持房间清洁。    (作补语)

      某些表示特征的形容词(如blind,dead,old,young,rich,poor,brave,wounded等)和定冠词连用从而名词化,可泛指一类人,在句中作主语、宾语等。作主语时,后面的谓语动词要用复数形式。例如:

      The aged are well taken care of in our society.    在我们社会里老年人得到很好的照顾。

      但是少数几个以-ed结尾的形容词(如accused,departed)与定冠词连用时可用来指个别人,作主语时,后面的谓语动词用单数形式。

      The departed was a good teacher in our department.    死者是我们系的一位好老师

      副词修饰的是动词、形容词、副词或全句,说明时间、地点、程度、方式等概念。副词在句子中大都作状语,也有一些副词作表语和定语。

      After a while a light smoke came slowly out of the jar.    过了一会儿,一股淡淡的烟慢慢地从坛子里出来。    (作状语)

      I must be off now.    我得走了。    (作表语)

      I met her on my way home.    我在回家的路上遇见了她。    (作定语)

      1.形容词的比较级和最高级

      规则变化:一般在单音节和部分双音节的形容词的词尾加-er或-esto大部分双音节和多音节的形容词,则在其前面加more或most.

    构 成 方 法  原 级  比 较 级  最 高 级 
    单音节词在词尾加-er([E])或-est([ist))  high
    tall 
    higher
    taller 
    highest
    tallest 
    以字母e结尾的单音节词,只加-r或-st  large
    wide 
    larger
    wider 
    largest
    widest 
    以重读闭音节结尾的词,如果末尾只有一个辅音字母,应先双写这个辅音字母,再加-er或-est  thin
    big 
    thinner
    bigger 
    thinnest
    biggest 
    以辅音字母加y结尾的词,先把y变成i,再加- er或-est  happy  happier  happiest 
    少数以-er,-ow,-ble结尾的双音节词,末尾也加-er和-est或-r和-st  Clever
    low
    able 
    Cleyerer
    lower
    abler 
    Cleverest
    lowest
    ablest 
    多数双音节词和多音节词,在前面加more和most  difficult
    beautiful 
    more difficdt
    more beautiful 
    most difficult
    most beautiful 

      (1)形容词比较级用法

      I thought he was actually poorer than he really was.    我原来认为他比实际上更穷。

      It is better to be silent than to speak.    说话是银,沉默是金。

      Reading is easier than speaking.    读比说容易。

      (2)形容词最高级用法

      John is the oldest (youngest,strongest,weakest,smallest,cleverest) boy in the class.  约翰是班上年龄最大的(最小的、身体最结实的、身体最差的、个子最小的、最聪明的)的男生。

      Peter is the fattest (thinnest,biggest) boy on the team.    彼特是队里最胖(最瘦、个子最大)的队员。

      She is the liveliest (happiest,heaviest,ugliest,friendliest,healthiest,hungriest,prettiest,sleepiest) of us all.    她是我们所有人中最活泼(最快乐、最重、最丑、最友好、最健康、最饿、最漂亮、最困倦)的人。

      2.副词的比较级和最高级

      (1)副词的比较级和最高级规则变化和形容词一样,只是词尾以ly结尾的副词(early一词的lY不是词尾)须用more和most.

      (2)副词比较级和最高级的用法与形容词相似。但副词最高级前面可以省去定冠词the(加the也可以)。例如:

      You can jump much higher on the moon than on the earth.    你在月球上可以比在地球上跳得高得多。

      She writes (the) most carefully of the three.    她在这三个人中写得最仔细。

      3.形容词和副词比较等级的不规则变化

    原 级  比 较 级  最 高 级 
    good
    well 
    better  best 
    bad(ly)
    ill 
    worse[wE:s ]  worst[wE:st] 
    marnv
    much 
    more  most 
    little  less  least 
    far  farther
    further 
    farthest
    furthest 
    old  older
    elder 
    o1dest
    eldest 

      4.比较级的一些特殊的和其他的用法

      (1) 有些形容词和副词的比较级和最高级有两种不同形式,它们在意义上也有所不同:

    原 级  比 较 级  最 高 级 
    old  older较老,较旧(说明人的年纪大或事物的年代的久远)
    elder较年长(多用来区别人与人之间的长幼) 
    oldest最老,最旧
    eldest最年长 
    late  later较迟,后来(指时间)
    latter后者(和“前者”对比,指顺序) 
    latest最近(指时间)
    last最后(指顺序) 
    far  farther较远
    further较远,进一步 
    farthest最远
    furthest最远(常用于引申意义,表示“更进一步的”,“深一层的”。) 

      (2)在形容词和副词的比较级前,有时可以用much,a little,still,far,by far,even,no,any,a great deal等状语词来修饰,表示“更……”、“……得多”等程度意义。例如:

      This is taking a little more time than we thought.  这比我们本来想的要多花一点时间。

      He's for behind me.    他远远落后于我。

      The Pacific is by for the largest ocean and covers almost half of the total ocean area. 太 平洋要大得多,是最大的一个洋,几乎占整个海洋面积的一半。

      (3)表示甲与乙在某一方面程度相同时,用“as+形容词(副词)原级+as”的句型。例如:

      They produce waste gases almost as harmful as the gases from factories.    它们(车辆)产生的废气几乎和工厂产生的废气一样有害。

      (4)a.表示“几倍于”、  “比……多(大)几倍”时用twice(两倍),three times (三倍)等加as…as结构来表示。

      This skirt costs twice as much as that one.    这条裙子比那条贵一倍。

      This room is three times as big as that one.    这间房屋比那间大两倍。

      b.可用“…times+名词”表示“……倍”。

      If you offered me six times the amount that you have just offered,I would still take my pound of flesh.    如果你出你刚才所出的钱的六倍,我仍然要我的那磅肉。

      This reservoir is four times the size of that one.    这个水库有那个水库的四个大。

      c.可用“…times+形容词(副词)比较级形式+than…”表示“比……多(大、重、长……)……倍”。

      Give me three times more than Antonio borrowed from me.    加三倍还给我安东尼奥的借款吧。

      d.另外还有:

      He is twice my age.    他的年龄比我大一倍。

      The output of plastic for 1977 was twice over that for 1979.    1979年的塑料产量是1977年的两倍。

      The output of paper has more than doubled.    纸张的产量增加了一倍多。

      The nation's grain output in l986 was 3.4 times that of l984.   1986年这个国家的粮食产量是1984年的3.4倍。

      The output of cotton has increased three times as against l986.    棉花产量比1986年增加了两倍。

      The output of oil was more than 2.5 times greater.    油的产量增加了2.5倍。

      (5)可用“比较级+and+比较级”(后面不接than从句)来表示“越来越……”。

      But she looked at me and cried harder and harder.    但是她看着我,哭得越来越厉害。

      (6)可用“the+比较级+the+比较级”来表示“越……就越……”。例如:

      They discovered that the farther away the feeding station was,the slower the dance was.他们发现喂食地点越远,舞就跳得越慢。

    第四节  介词

      介词是虚词,介词不能单独作句子成分,只能用在名词、代词或作用相当于名词的    其他词、词组或从句之前,与之一起构成介词短语充当句子成分。介词在英语中用得极    为广泛、灵活,可组成许多成语和习惯用法,因此学习时要特别注意。

      1.介词的种类

      (1)简单介词

      on,in,with,by,for,about等

      (2)合成介词

      into,out of,as for,without

      (3)短语介词

      by means of,because of,according to,in respect of,in contrast with,in spite of

      (4)分词介词

      including,concerning,considering,regarding,provided,given

      2.介词短语

      介词短语是由介词和构成介词短语的那部分名词或相当于名词的其他词或短语构成    的。主要有下列几种:

      (1)介词+名词

      Aluminum and zinc can easily combine with the oxygen in the air.    铝和锌很容易与空  气,户的氧化合。

      (2)介词+代词

      How much luggage can I take with me?    我能带多少行李?

      (3)介词+动名词

      You learn to speak English by speaking it.    你用说英语这种方式来学说英语。

      (4)介词+数词

      Everything divides into two.    事物都是一分为二的。

      (5)介词+另一个介词短语

      The air was removed from between the two pipes.    空气已从两管之间抽出。

      (6)介词+形容词或副词

      It is far from satisfactory.

      We have made some progress,but it is far from enough. 我们已经取得了一些进步,    但还远远不够。

      The door suddenly opened from within.

      (7)介词十不定式

      The airplane is about to take off.    这架飞机正要起飞。

      (8)介词十分词

      I consider the problem as settled.    我认为这个问题已经解决了。

      (9)介词+从句

      Liquids are different from solids in that liquids have no definite shape.  液体与固体的区    别在于液体没有固定形状。

      3.介词的用法

      (1)作状语

      According to molecular theory,all matter is made up of small particles called molecules.

      根据分子理论,一切物质都是由叫做分子的小粒子组成的。

      (2)作定语

      These are movies and videotapes in foreign languages.    这些是外语影片和录像带。

      Claims beyond the responsibilities of the suppliers can not be entertained.    供方责任以外的索赔不能受理。

      (3)作表语

      The result is beyond expectation.    结果是出乎意外的。

      (4)作主补和宾补

      Petroleum is considered of great value.(主语补语)    石油被认为很有价值。

      A force may set the ball in motion.(宾语补语)    力可使球运动。

    第五节   连词

      连接词、词组、句子或从句的词,叫做连词。连词主要可分为两类,即并列连词和从属连词。

      1,并列连词

      按词的意义来分,并列连词可分为:

      1)表示意义转折的并列连词;2)表示因果关系的并列连词;3)表示选择的并列连词;4)其他并列连词。

      1)表示意义转折的并列连词

      这类连词有:but,while,yet,however,nevertheless等。

      The price is very reasonable,but,in order to encourage business,we allow you a discount of  2%。    这价格十分合理,为了促进业务,我方愿给2%折扣。

      Some people waste food while other haven't enough.    有些人浪费食物,而另外一些  人的食物却不够。

      She is vain and foolish,and yet people like her.    她自负愚蠢,然而人们喜欢她。

      2)表示因果关系的并列连词

      这类连词有:for,so,therefore,hence等。

      It must be snowing,for it is so bright outside.    天一定在下雪,因为外面这么亮。

      It rained;therefore the game was called off.    天下雨,所以比赛被取消了。

      The word is an uncountable noun and is used in a general sense,hence (therefore) it takes    no article.

      这个词是不可数名词,又用于一般意义,所以不要加冠词。

      3)表示选择的并列连词

      这类连词有:or,either……or,neither……nor,whether……or.

      Please either come in or go out:don't stand there in the doorway.    请你要么进来,要  么出去,不要站在门口。

      Whether you like it or not,you will have to do it    你必须做这件事,不管你喜欢还  是不喜欢。

      4)其他并列连词

      这类连词有:and,as well as,not only……but also,both……and等。

      This is the rock-bottom price and any further reduction is out of the question.  本价格为  最低价,不能再降。

      Hawks eat not only chickens but also field mice.    鹰不仅吃小鸡也吃田鼠。

      It sold both precious stones and the better kinds of jewellry.    它出卖珍贵的钻石和上等珠宝。

      2.从属连词

      从属连词有:when,  before,  after,  as,  while,  because,  if,  since,  until,  unless,

      than, that,  whether, so that, as soon as, as long as, as if, as though, suppose (that), provided that, in case (that), on condition (that), now that, so……that, such……that等。(用法请参考从句)

      He was just preparing to go to town when it began to rain.  他正要准备进城时天突然下起雨来了。

      All things are difficult before they are easy.  万事开头难。

      When a chemical change takes place, one or more substances are formed.  当化学变化发生时,就形成了一种或多种物质。

      Einstein cared hale for money, though he could have been very rich.  虽然爱因斯坦本可以非常富有,但是他对金钱却不感兴趣。

      A just cause enjoys abundant support while an unjust cause finds little support.  得道多助,失道寡助。

      As he was tired, he took a rest.  由于他累了,他休息了一下。

      A gas becomes hotter if it is compressed.  气体受压缩,温度就升高。

      Batteries should be kept in dry place lest electricity should leak away.  电池应置于干燥的地方,以免漏电。

      We can know the voltage provided we know both the current and resistance.  只要我们知道电流和电阻,我们就能够求出电压。

      On condition that the liquid is cooled still further, it will mm to a solid.  如果把液体进一步冷却,它就会变成固体。

      All living things respire as long as they live.  一切生物只要活着都要呼吸。

      As the atomic numbers increase, the atomic weights increase.  原子量是随着原子序数的增加而增加。

      Electricity has found wide applications since it was discovered.  电自发现以来已得到了广泛的应用。

      The temperature in the sun is so high that nothing can exist in solid state.  太阳内的温度是如此之高,以致没有东西能以固态存在。

    第六节  情态动词

      情态动词和不带to的动词不定式一起构成谓语,但ought除外。情态动词有一定的词义,没有人称和数的变化。它表示说话人的语气或情态,如请求、命令、愿望、能力以及可能性等。英语的情态动词有:

      can, could

      may, might

      must

      ought to

      shall, should

      will, would

      dare, dared

      need

      1. can, could

      (1) 能,能够、会、可以

      Energy can be changed from one form into another. 能可以从一种形式变成另一种形式。

      We can buy a car by instalments.    我们可以以分期付款买轿车。

      (2)许可

      You can ( = may) go home now.   你现在可以回家了。

      (3)用于条件句中

      If he comes, he can help us.    如果他来,他能帮助我们。

      I could come earlier, if necessary.    如果有必要,我可早些来。

      (4)表怀疑,难以置信

      He couldn't (can't) be her father; he is too young.

      (5) could + have + p. p.    婉转地责备、遗憾

      He could have passed the exam. 他当时本该通过考试。

      (6)be able to是can的同义结构,常用以表示cm所不能表示的未来或完成的概念。如:

      ①Thus, we shall be able to determine the amount of alcohol burned.  这样,我们就可以确定燃烧掉的酒精量。

      They have not been able to come.    他们没有能来。

      2. may 和 might

      (1)允许、请求

      Excuse me, may I have a glass of water?    对不起,我可以喝水吗?

      (2)可能,或许;用might语气更加不肯定

      These ideas may seem strange to you.    这些想法或许令你感到惊怪。

      He might get lost.    他可能迷路了。

      (3) may (might) + have + pp表对过去的推测

      She may (might) have missed the bus.    她也许没赶上车。

      (4)表祝愿

      May all your dreams come true.    愿你们的梦想成真。

      May it be so.  但愿如此。

      (5) be allowed to是may的同义结构,可表达现在、过去和将来时态。如:

      You will be allowed to use this computer.    你可以用这台计算机。

      3. must

      (1)必须,应该

      The auditor must conduct sufficient verification.  审计师必须进行充分的验证。

      (2) must not意为“不应该”,“不许”;need not是must的否定回答

      We must not be afraid of difficulties.  我们不应该害怕困难。

      Must I return the book.?     —Yes, you must.    我必须还这本书吗?是的。

      —No, you needn't.   不,不必。

      (3) must + have + pp    表对过去的推测

      I can't find my umbrella. Someone must have taken it.  我找不到我的伞,一定是被谁拿走了。

      (4) must + be + -ing  一定在

      They must be talking about us now.    他们准在谈论我们。

      (5)have to是must的同义结构,可表达现在,过去和将来时态。

      We will have to change our plan.    我们得改变计划。

      4. ought to

      (1)应该

      We ought to make the most of our time.    我们应该尽量用好时间。

      (2) ought to + have + pp   表过去没完成的事

      She ought to have come to see me two days ago, but she forgot.  她本来应该在两天前来看我,可是她忘了。

      (3)表推测

      This arrangement ought to please them.    这个安排应该会令他们高兴。

      5. shall

      (1)命令,警告,允诺,威胁,强制,决心

      Everything shall be done to save the ship.  一定要竭尽全力来拯救这艘船。

      You shall follow the doctors advice.    你得听医生的。

      If you work hard, you shall hate a day off.    如果你努力工作,你就可以放一天假。

      (2)征求意见

      ——Shall I close the door?    我关上门好吗?

      ——Yes, please. (No, please don't. )

      (3)在法律、合同中,表示义务或强制性行为

      The present treaty shall come into force immediately after its ratification.    本条约在批准后将立即生效。

      Gambling in any form shall be banned.   各种赌博必须予以禁止。

      6. should

      (1)应该

      A formal written appraisal should be prepared annually.   每年应该准备一份正式的评价报告。

      (2)推测

      They should be home by now.    现在他们应该到家了。

      (3) should + have + pp   表过去应做但没做的事。含有责备的意思。

      This conclusion should have been double-checked.    该结论本应该反复核对。

      (4)表愤怒,不满,失望

      I am very sorry that he should be so careless.    真遗憾,他竟然这么粗心。

      (5)用于让步从句中

      He run away lest he should be seen.    他跑开了,以免被看见。

      7. will

      (1)请求

      Will you lend me your dictionary?    请你把词典借我好吗?

      (2)表意图,决心

      I won't let you down.  我不会令你失望。

      (3)表推测

      That will be the postman at the door.    在门口的一定是邮递员。

      (4)自然规律,习惯动作

      Fish will die out of water.    鱼离开水会死。

      Water will boil at 100 degrees centigrade.    水在摄氏100度开。

      8. would

      (1)委婉请求或命令

      Would you take a seat?    请坐!

      (2)表过去习惯性动作

      He would sit there for hours, doing nothing.  他常一连几个小时坐在那里,什么也不做。

      (3)表过去的一种倾向

      He told us that the box would not open.   他告诉我们盒子打不开。

      (4)表对过去的猜测

      That would be in 1966, I think.  我想那大概发生在1966年。

      9. dare 和 dared

      (1)敢

      How dare you speak to me like that?    你怎敢那样对我说话?

      No one dared speak of it.    当时没人敢谈论此事。

      (2)有时后面跟不定式,用作行为动词

      He dares to think, to speak, and to act.  他敢想,敢说,敢干。

      10. need

      (1)“需要”,用于否定句和疑问句中

      Need I show you my passport?   ——Yes, you must.  我需要出示护照吗?是的。

      ——No, you needn't.  不,不必啦。

      We didn't need to call the doctor.   我们不必请大夫。

      (2) needn't + have + pp  本不必做

      She needn't have watered the flowers.  她本不必浇花。

    第七节    被动语态

      被动语态的句子中的主语是动作的承受者,即行为的对象。

      被动语态的构成是由助动词be加上及物动词的过去分词。be的人称和数要和句中主语一致,并表现出时态特征。

      凡是不愿或不必说出主动者时,使用被动语态。此外,在强调或突出动作对象时,常使用被动语态。

      现以动词tell为例,将各种人称数和时态的被动语态列表如下:

    一般现在时  I +am
    He (She) + is + told
    You (We, They) + are 
    一般过去时 

    + told
     
    I (He, She) + was
    We (You, They) + were 
    一般将来时 
    +be told
     
    I (We) +will (shall)
    You (He, She, They) + will 
    过去将来时 
    + be told
     
    I (We) + should
    You (He, She, They) + would 
    现在完成时 
    + been told
     
    I (We, You, They) + have
    He (She) + has 
    过去完成时  I (You, He, She,
    + had + been + told
    We, You, They) 
    现在进行时  I +am
    He (She) + is + being told
    You (We, They) + are 
    过去进行时  I (He, She) + was
    + being told
    We (You, They) + were 

      1.用法

      (1)一般现在时

      A statement of owners' equity is frequently prepared to accompany the balance sheet and income statement.  通常编写所有者权益表随同资产负债表和收益表。

      All our shoes are made by hand.   我厂出品的鞋都是手工制造的。

      The article is retailed at a higher price than when it was bought wholesale.  物品的零售价高于购进时的批发价。

      (2)一般过去时

      She was praised for her economical management of the budget.  她因对预算的管理有方而被表扬。

      An urgent telephone call was made to the company's treasure.   公司财务收到一个紧急电话。

      (3)一般将来时

      Your will be introduced to the office building.  将向您介绍办公大楼。

      Will storekeepers be prosecuted for raising prices without government permission?  店主会不会因未得到政府许可提价而被起诉?

      (4)过去将来时

      She told me that her father would be taken to hospital the next morning.    她告诉我第二天早晨她的父亲将被送到医院去。

      (5)现在完成时

      These trade terms have been developed by mercantile custom and standardized to a certain extent.    这些贸易条款是在商业惯例中形成并在一定程度上标准化了的。

      The consumers should unlearn the propoganda with which they have been fed by the advertizers.    消费者应当摒弃广告商所作的广泛的宣传。

      (6)过去完成时

      They told him that the meeting had been cancelled.  他们告诉他会议已被取消。

      (7)现在进行时

      In some developed countries, children are being taught by computers.  在一些发达国家,孩子们的课程是用计算机讲授的。

      Computers are being used to predict the weather.  计算机正被用来预测天气。

      (8)过去进行时

      The conversation was being recorded.    那时在对那次谈话进行录音。

      The street was being widened.    街道那时在加宽。

      The problem was being studied.    那时在研究这个问题。

      (9)有两个宾语的主动结构变被动结构

      We allowed them a commission of 5 per cent.  我们给他们5%的手续费。

      ① They were allowed a commission of 5 per cent.

      ② A commission of 5 per cent was allowed them by us.

      We shall give Mr. John a warm welcome.    我们将热烈欢迎约翰先生。

      ① Mr. John will be given a warm welcome.

      ② A warm welcome will be given to Mr. John.

      (10)动词不定式的被动结构

      A new study plan (work plan) has to be made.  必须制定一个新的学习计划(工作计划)。

      He will have to be tried for murder.    他因犯杀人罪将要受到审判。

      The project is (going) to be completed in October.   这项工程将在十月份完工。

      2.在英语中,被动语态用于下列场合:

      (1)当我们不知道或者没有必要说明谁是动作的执行者时(这时都不用由by引起的短语)

      My watch has been stolen.    我的表已被偷了。(不知道谁偷的)

      On Saturday night, on her way home from work, she was robbed.  星期六晚上,在下班回家的路上,她被抢了。

      (2)当我们要强调动作的承受者时

      Qu Yuan is also remembered on this day.  也在这一天纪念屈原。

      He will never be forgotten.  永远不会忘记他。

      (3)当出于礼貌,措词等方面的考虑不愿说出谁是动作的执行者时,例如:

      You are requested to give a performance.   请你表演一个节目。

      3.主动句表示被动含义

      (1)及物动词need, want, require, deserve, bear等之后用动名词的主动形式表示被动意义。

      This issue requires dealing with great care.   该问题需仔细研究。

      The new instruments want very careful handling.    这些新仪器必须轻拿轻放。

      (2)动词find+名词含有被动意义,这时主语多为非生物。如:

      Electronics finds its application in navigation.    电子学在航海上得到应用。

      (3)在有些性质形容词后用动词不定式的主动形式表示被动意义。如:

      Atom is too small to see.  原子小得看不见。

      The question is easy to answer.   这个问题很容易回答。

      (4)在形容词worth之后,用动名词的主动形式表示被动意义。如:

      This book is worth reading.   这本书值得一读。

      Three points are worth quoting for our purpose.   就我们的目的而言,有三点值得引证。

      (5) get+过去分词表示被动意义。如:

      This question got talked about a little.  该问题曾略加议论过。

      (6)有些介词短语作表语或定语时,表示被动意义。如:

      The question is under discussion.   问题正在讨论。

      The phenomenon under study is very interesting.   在研究中的现象十分有趣。

    第八节    虚拟语气

      表示所说的不是事实,或者是不可能发生的情况,而只是一种愿望,假设或猜测。

      1. 表示和现在事实相反的假设:

      He is honest.  If he were dishonest, I should not trust him.    他是诚实的。如果他不诚实的话,我就不会信任他。

      He is not alive. If he were alive today, he would be a hero.    他死了。如果他今天活着的话,他会是个英雄。

      If there were no air, there would be no living things.    如果没有空气,就没有生物。

      If there were no gravity, we should not be able to walk.    如果没有引力,我们就不能行走。

      In fact, I am not there. If I were there, I could solve the problem by myself. 事实上,我没有在那里。如果我在那里的话,我自己就能解决这个问题。

      2. 表示和过去事实相反的假设:

      If there had been no air, there would have been no living things.  如果当初没有空气,也就没有生物了。

      You didn't come here yesterday.  If you had come here yesterday,  you would have seen him.

      昨天你没有来。如果昨天你到这里来了的话,你就看见他了。

      If had not obeyed him, I might have been punished.    要是我那时不服从他的话,我可能受处分。

      3.和将来事实相反的假设:

    if从 句  主 句 
    should+ 动词原形  should(would)+ 动词原形 
    were to+动词原形 
    动词过去式 

      If he should be here tomorrow, he would call me up.   万一他明天来这里的话,他会给我打电话的。(来的可能性很小)

      If it were to rain tomorrow, the match would be cancelled.    万一明天下雨的话,就将取消比赛。(下雨的可能性极小)

      4.虚拟语气的一些其他用法

      (1)在动词with, suggest, demand, insist 和order等后面的宾语从句中,一般用虚拟语气(在用should+动词原形时,should常可省略,而只用动词原形,且用于所有的人称)。例如:

      I suggest that we (should)  repair the machine at once. 我提议我们立刻修这台机器。

      The leader of the team ordered that all (should) finish the work by supper time.  队长命令晚饭前都必须完成工作。

      He insisted that all (should) attend the meeting.  他坚持大家都要参加那个会议。

      (2)在“It is time(that)  +从句”的结构中,从句的谓语动词用过去式,表示“该做某事了,时间已经有些晚了”的意思。这也是一种虚拟语气。例如:It is time we went to work.     我们该去工作了。

      (3)在由as if, so that, in order that, as though等引导的状语从句中,也往往用虚拟语气形式。例如Annie treated me exactly as if I were a seeing and hearing child.    安妮对待我就好象我是一个能看能听的孩子似的。

      The Emperor gave the cheats some gold in order that they might begin their work at once. 皇帝给了骗子们一些金子以便他们能立刻开始工作。

      (4)虚拟语气在主语从句中的用法:在It is necessary (natural, strange, important) that等句型中,后面主语从句的谓语动词要用“should+动词原形”结构。例如:

      It is strange that he should have been late for the meeting. 真奇怪,他开会迟到了。

      It is necessary that we should take the box away at once. 我们有必要立即把这只箱子搬走。

    第九节  分词

      分词是非谓语动词的一种,分词有现在分词和过去分词两类。

      1.形式及特征

      现在分词由动词原形+“ing”构成。规则动词的过去分词由动词原形+“ed”构成。不规则动词的过去分词没有规则。

      分词有形容词和动词特征,可以有宾语或状语,现在分词有一般式和完成式,有主动语态和被动语态,而过去分词只有一般式,没有完成式,也没有主动语态。

      2.用法

      (1)作定语

      作定语用的分词如果是单词,则放在它所修饰的名词之前。

      China is a developing country.    中国是一个发展中国家。

      It is a well-written article.    这是一篇好文章。

      作定语用的分词如果是分词短语,则放在它所修饰的名词之后,相当于定语从句。

      It is a method used by retailers to attract customers.    这是零售商用来吸引顾客的一种方法。

      We wish to introduce ourselves to you as a corporation dealing exclusively in Light Industrial Goods.    我们是专营轻工产品的公司。

      (2)作表语

      This novel is very interesting.    这本小说很有趣。

      The theory sounds quite convincing.   这种说法听起来很有说服力。

      分词作表语时,要与现在进行时与被动语态区分开,如:

      He is reading the novel.    (现在进行时)    他正在读小说。

      His interest is reading.    (现在分词作表语)    他的兴趣是阅读。

      The novel is being read.    (过去分词作谓语)    这本小说正在被读。

      (3)作状语

      ①表示时间

      Having worked for three hours, she took a rest.  工作了三个小时之后,她休息了一会儿。

      Opening the drawer he took out a book.    打开抽屉,他拿出一本书。

      ②表示原因

      Being debits always recorded in amounts equal to credits, the debits and credits should always equal each other.    由于借贷所记的金额是相等的,所以借与贷必须相等。

      Inspired by the teacher, the students studied even harder.    在老师的鼓励下,学生们更加努力地学习。

      ③表示伴随或方式

      Laughing and talking, the children went out into the garden.  孩子们又说又笑地走进花园。

      ④表示结果

      The bus was held up in the snowstorm, thus causing the delay.   公共汽车被困在寒风雪中,因此给耽搁了。

      Last year the yield climbed again, reaching 1,300 kilograms.      去年产量上升了,达到1,300公斤。

      (4)作宾语补足语

      We must get everything straightened out.    我们必须把一切弄清楚。

      I found that store almost completely rebuilt.    我发现那个商店几乎全部改建过了。

      (5)作独立主格

      All things considered, the commodities are the best in our firm.    经过充分考虑后,认为这些商品是我们公司的最好商品。

      His work finished, he prepares to return to his company.    工作完成后,他准备回公司。

      So many directors being absent, we decided to put the meeting off.    由于董事缺席过多,我们决定会议延期。

      Weather permitting, we'll send the commodities tomorrow.    天气好的话,我们明天就把货送到。

      These are sold at reduced prices, the defects always being pointed out to the customers.  这些货是降低出售的,货物的缺陷总是向顾客们指出的。

    第十节   动名词

      动名词是非谓语动词的一种,它是由动词原形+ing构成,它有名词和动词的特征。

      1. 动名词作主语

      Interpreting figures is an important part of the accountant's function.  解释数据是会计职能的一个重要部分。

      Determining the least costly way to produce a specific quantity of output occupies much of the time of managers.  设法以最低成本生产定量产品要耗费管理者大量时间。

      2.动名词作表语

      The bookkeepers work is recording financial data.    簿记员的工作是记录财务数据。

      His interest is reading novels.    他的兴趣是读小说。

      3.作宾语

      可以用在begin, start, stop, finish, like等动词后面。

      They haven't finished packing the goods.  他们还未完成货物的包装。

      He likes playing basketball.  他爱打篮球。

      It is difficult to see how the company can avoid making another loss this years.  很难看出该公司今年是如何避免遭受损失。

      4.作介词宾语

      He had prepared himseif well by reading about the firm and its products previous to the interview.   在会见前,他阅读了有关商行的资料,以便做好充分准备。

      The cattle are branded before being driven to the market.    牛在被赶进市场前,被打上烙印。

      Take your time to balance the two plans carefully before arriving at a final decision.  在得出最后结论以前,先从容仔细地比较这两个计划。

    第十一节     动词不定式

      1.概念

      不定式是动词的一种非谓语形式,是由不定式记号to加动词原形构成的。不定式具有动词的特征,即及物动词可带宾语,可被状语修饰,也可有语态的变化。

      当动词的不定式与另一个动词连用时,不定式通常要带to.

      I want to go to the station.   我想去车站。

      而在某些动词后面(如can, shall, do, will, may, need) to要省略,如:

      You may do the work.   你可以做这项工作。

      2.用法

      动词不定式在句子中可作主语、宾语、表语、定语、状语及不定式复合结构。

      (1)不定式作主语

      不定式主语+谓语+其他成分

      To have a firm self-confidence is a first step toward a succesful negotiation.   有了坚定的自信是走向谈判成功的第一步。

      有的情况下,可用it作形式主语来代替不定式做主语

      It+谓语+不定式主语+其他成分

      It is risky to build too many hopes upon his promise.  对他的承诺寄以太大的希望是危险的。

      It is impossible to get him to understand what I mean.   不可能让他懂得我的意思。

      (2)不定式作宾语

      The majority of our members consented to raise the dues.   大多数会员同意增加会费。

      The supermarkets owner planned to postpone the grand opening until Saturday.   自选商场所有者计划把大减价持续到星期六。

      The analysis seeks to identify the strengths,  weaknesses,  opportunities and threats.   本分析在于证实力量、弱点、机遇和风险。

      (3)不定式作表语

      His job was to examine cars to make sure that they were not smuggling anything into the country.   他的工作是检查汽车,确保不使任何物品走私入境。

      The manager seems to be losing his grip on the business. 经理似乎正在失去对企业的控制。

      A major function of accounting is to provide periodic reports to manager and owners outsiders.   会计的一项主要职能是向管理人员和所有者提供定期报告。

      The house is to be sold by auction.   这幢房子将被拍卖。

      The first is to evaluate the adequacy of the predetermined.  首要任务是评价预料的准确性。

      (4)不定式作定语

      We must think of ways to combat the rising prices.   我们应该想办法克服物价上涨。

      As a teacher, I have the ability to suggest books, to point out a pathway.   作为一个教师,我有能力推荐书籍,指点迷津。

      The shopkeeper offered me a credit note to be used to buy goods in his shop.   商店老板给了我一个信用证,用来在他的店里购货。

      (5)不定式作状语

      In order to improve business, the store owner decreased his prices.   店主降低价格以便使营业好转。

      To be perfectly flank, I do not see what she has to be vain about.   坦率地说,我看不出她有什么值得骄傲之处。

      To illustrate how the heart sends blood around the body, the doctor described how a pump works.   为了说明心脏如何把血液输送到全身,医生描绘了泵的工作。

      We were fortunate to have had him at our company.   聘请他在我们公司工作是我们公司的幸运。

      You must be aggressive to be a door-to-door salesman.   想当好推销员必须有闯劲。

      (6)不定式复合结构

      The valve opened for air to enter.  打开阀门以便进气。

      There is a lot of work for us to do.  我们有许多工作要做。

      There are a lot of problems for the manager to cope with. 经理有许多问题要处理。

      She brought the balance sheet for the manager to sign.  她拿来资产负债表让经理签字。

      He brought the ledger for me to check.   他把总账拿来让我查账。

      It's too late for us to start. 太晚了,我们不好动身。

      I brought something for you to look at.   我带来东西给你看。

      Here's a pen for you to sign the contract with.  给你这支笔来签合同。

      (7)带疑问词的不定式

      疑问代词who,what,which和疑问副词when,why,how,where的后面可以接不定式,构成一个名词性短语,可在句中作主语、表语、宾语或定语。

      ① What to do next will be discussed at today's meeting.     下一步该怎么做将在今天会上讨论。

      ② The question is how to fulfil our production plan as soon as possible.   问题是如何尽早完成生产计划。

      ③ It is not decided yet whether to go there or not.   是否去那儿尚未决定。

      ④ The question is how to send the goods.   问题是如何把货物运去。

      ⑤ You had better find out where to change your money.  你最好找一下换钱的地方。

      ⑥ He will tell you which way to go.   他会告诉你走哪条路。

    第十二节   复合宾语

      复合宾语是指宾语和宾语补足语构成的复合结构,复合宾语中的宾语和宾语补足语,在逻辑上有主谓关系。

      复合宾语有以下几种类型:

      1.名词或代词+不定式

      Poverty forces many people to sleep in the streets and die of sickness and hunger.    贫困使许多人睡在大街上并死于疾病和饥饿。

      I should prefer you not to change your sales plan.   我宁愿你不改变销售计划。

      The director considers it to be of strategic importance.    董事认为那有战略重要性。

      The manager encouraged his subordinates to air their opinion.   经理鼓励下级发表意见。

      在有些动词(如let, make, see, hear, watch, find, feel等)动词的复合结构中,不定式的协需省去,如:

      We found people lose interest in saving money.    我们发现人们对存款失去了兴趣。

      He made his son write out the exercise again.   他让他的儿子把练习再做一遍。

      May I help you send the letter?   要不要我帮你寄信?

      We should be pleased to let you have our samples.   兹奉上我方产品样品。

      I'll let you know as soon as I hear from that company.    一得到该公司消息我就会让你知道。

      2. 名词+分词

      I must set the whole thing going.   我要使此事有所进展。

      We saw people celebrating the 10 years' anniversary of the founding of the department store.  我们看到人们正在庆祝百货公司成立十周年。

      He is determined to make his voice heard.    他下决心使自己的声音被人听到。

      The chairperson declared the meeting adjourned.   主席宣布会议延期。

      The director admitted himself debated.   董事承认了自己的失败。

      I must get the watch repaired.   我要修表。

      3.名词+形容词

      Banks could make your money safe and available when you need it.  银行可妥善保管你的钱,你需要钱时可随时提取。

      Their service helped the company make its advertizing more productive and profitable.  他们的服务有助于该公司所作广告更加有效和有利可图。

      You must keep the storehouse clean and tidy.   你应该保持仓库整洁。

      4.名词(代词)+代词

      They made him president of the committee.  他们委任他为委员会主席。

      You ought to keep it a secret.   你应对此事保密。

      They nominated him a member of the council.   他们指定他为理事会理事。

      We consider it something we must do at once.   我们认为那是我们立刻要办的事。

      The incorporators named the corporation CAP.   公司创办人给公司起名为CAP.

    第十三节   with复合结构

      with复合结构由with+名词十分词(形容词,不定式,名词,副词+介词短语)构成。

      He sat with his arms clasped round his knees.    (名词+过去分词短语)    他双臂抱膝坐在那里。

      With the stock market falling, the prospect of Asian economy is bleak.   (名词+现在分词)股市下跌,亚洲经济前景暗淡。

      With nothing to do, I went on a round of the bookshops.   (名词+不定式)  手头无事可做,我就去逛书店。

      He was lying in bed with his clothes on.    (名词+副词)    他穿着衣服躺在床上。

      They stood with their backs to the wall.   (名词+介词短语)    他们背朝墙站着。

      with复合结构用来作定语和状语。作状语的with复合结构表示时间,原因,条件,

      方式以及伴随情况等。如:

      Is that the house with the policeman standing outside ?   (定语) 是不是外面有警察站岗的那座房子?

      She put a piece of paper with her name and address on it into a bottle. 她把一张写有姓名和地址的纸放人一只瓶子里。(定语)

      One of the fluids flows through the outside pipe, the other through the inside pipe, with heat excange taking place through the wall.  (伴随状语)    其中一个流体走外管,另一流体走内管,而热交换通过管壁进行。

      With the weather as close as this, ten to one it will rain presently.   (原因状语)    天气这么闷,十有八九要下雨。

      They work with the lamp lighted.   (伴随状语)    他们亮着灯工作。

      In gases, the particles are far apart, with empty space in between.  (方式状语)    体中粒子相互隔开,其间有空隙。

      With our foreign trade expading at such a tempo, the question is indeed to find enough hands to fill the jobs.   (条件状语)    如果我们的对外贸易以这样的速度发展的话,问题确实是要能找到足够的人手来干这些工作。

      He worked from morning till night, with little to eat and only a tiny place to live in.  (方式状语)    他从早干到晚,没有吃的,住的地方也很狭窄。

      Even with conditions unfavourable, they would succeed.     (= Even if conditions were

      unfavourable, ……)   (让步状语)    即使条件不利,他们也会成功。

    第十四节   名词从句

      名词从句是指在句子中起名词作用的从句,名词从句有主语从句、表语从句、宾语

      从句及同位语从句。引导名词从句的关联词有:

      连词,如:that, if, whether.

      关系代词,如:which, what, who.

      关系副词,如:when, where, how, why.

      1.主语从句,即名词从句做主语

      主语从句有三类:  (1)what主语从句;  (2)that主语从句;  (3)连接代词who,whom, whose, which和连接副词when, where, how, why引导的主语从句。

      What caused the accident is a mystery.   造成事故的原因还是个谜。

      What they want are financial aids.    他们想要经济援助。

      That time is money has been realized in the West.   时间就是金钱,这在西方已实现了。

      That she will refuse the offer seems unlikely.  她会拒绝这个提议似乎不可能。

      When and where the exhibition opens is written in the announcement.  展览会在什么时候、什么地方开幕,通知里写着。

      Why he shot her is a complete mystery.    他为什么打死她完全是个谜。

      How he did it doesn't matter.  这事他是怎样做的,无关紧要。

      Which plan is better is clear now.   哪个计划更好,现在清楚了。

      有时,把连接词或关系副词引出的主语从句放在句子后面,用it作形式上的主语,如:

      It was obvious that the driver could not control his car.  显然,司机已不能控制他的车了。

      ( That the driver could not control his car was obvious)。

      It is a wonder ( that ) you didn't lose your way in the dark.   真奇怪,黑暗中你没有迷路。

      2.表语从句,即名词从句作表语,位于主句的连系动词之后,如:

      The legal reason for maintaining payroll accounting records is that employers are required by federal, state and local laws to do so.  保留工薪会计记录是由于联邦、州、地方政府的法律要求。

      It seems that he has never been paid the momey.   他好像还没付钱。

      Raw material is what we are urgently in need of.  我们急需原料。

      This term is what we are against.   这一条正是我们所反对的。

      That's what you should do.   那是你应该做的。

      Things in their firm were not as they seemed to be.   他们公司的情况并不是表面那个样子。

      That is why we decided to put the meeting off.   这就是我们决定推迟会议的原因。

      This was just when our company was being formed.   那正是我们公司成立的时候。

      3.宾语从句:即名词从句作宾语,它可以是谓语动词的宾语,也可以是动词不定式,分词或动名词的宾语。

      The fruitpickers migrated to wherever they could find work.   摘果子的人会移民到任何可以找到工作的地方。

      In his letter, Johnson told how grateful he was for the loan.   在信中约翰逊对贷款表示感谢。

      He specifies how much he wishes to remit,  who the sum should be paid to.   他详细说明汇款钱数和收款人。

      Could you tell me where the office is ?   请告诉我办公室在哪儿。

      They gave to whoever came to the conference an introduction.   凡是出席大会的,他们都给一份介绍。

      I‘ll read whichever report you recommend.   你推荐的什么报告我都要看。

      We could give you whatever help you need.   你想要什么帮助,我们都可以给你。

      The motor company revealed reluctantly that there were defects in their new cars.   汽车公司不得不承认他们的新车有毛病。

      Your report is quite all right except that the organization is somewhat loose.   你的报告写得不错,只是组织得不够紧凑。

      He often thought of how he could help others.   他经常在想如何去帮助别人。

      引导宾语从句的连词that有时可以省略,如:

      Saying he was busy, he went away in a hurry.   他说他很忙,即匆忙走了。

      4.  同位语从句:即名词从句作同位语,它在句中作某一名词的同位语。用that引导(有时用whether引导)。

      Another approach recognizes that people will act only when they have a reasonable expectation that their actions will lead to desired goals.   另一种方法发现只有当人们觉得他们的行为会达到预期的目的时他们才会行动。

      Several insurance companies have now made the decision that they should withdraw fiom the American market.   几家保险公司现在已经决定退出美国市场。

      I now regret having made a promise that I would join in the scheme.   我现在后悔答应参加该计划的事。

      A suggestion that they should postpone the discussion was accepted by the majority.   大多数人接受了推迟讨论。

      There was little probability that they would succeed.   他们的成功的可能性很小。

      She went to the meeting on the supposition that people would not ask her questions.   她参加了会,认为人们不会向她提问题。

      It is a certainty that they will carry out their undertakings.   他们肯定会进行他们的事业。

    第十五节   定语从句

      定语从句在句子中作定语,它修饰句子中的某一名词或代词,引导定语从句的关联词有关系代词who,whose,whom,which,that;关系副词when,where,why等。

      关系代词和关系副词除用来引导定语从句外,还可代表从句修饰的先行词,在从句中作主语、宾语、定语和状语。

      1.关系代词作主语

      关系代词在从句中作主语时,它的谓语动词在人称和数上应与所说明的词一致。

      Only laws that force companies to reform will clear the dangerous vapour from air.  只有用法律迫使该公司进行改革,才能从空气中清除有毒气体。

      Perhaps you could tell me the name of the shop which might stock this particular model.  你也许能告诉我存有这种特殊型号的商品的店名。

      A small business or company may employ only one bookkeeper who records all of the financial data by hand.   一个小的企业或公司可以只雇用一个簿记员用手工操作来记录全部的财务数据。

      2.关系代词作宾语

      The price he quoted for the car was essentially the same as that of his competitor.   他的汽车报价大体上和他的对手相近似。

      Don't swallow everything the advertisements say.   不要轻信广告上说的每一件事。

      3.关系代词作状语

      The only reason why we desire goods or service is to satisfy our wants.   我们需求商品或劳务的唯一理由是为了满足我们的需要。

      The retail store where I often buy goods is operated by his father.   我经常购买商品的那个零售店是由他父亲经营的。

      We still remember the days when we studied in the university.   我们仍记得在大学学习的那些日子。

      关系代词及关系副词在从句中的作用可归纳如下:

      who,指人,在从句中作主语。

      whom,指人,在从句中作宾语,在限定性定语从句中一般省略。

      关系代词      whose,指人,在从句中作定语。

      which,指物,在从句中作主语和宾语。

      that,指物,也可指人,在从句中作主语或宾语。

      when,指时间,在从句中作状语。

      关系副词      why,指原因,在从句中作状语。

      where,指地点,在从句中作状语。

      限定性定语从句和非限定性定语从句

      限定性定语从句是指先行词不可少的定语,它与主句的关系十分密切,若将这种定  语从句省去,则主句的意思就不完整,且这种定语从句不可用逗号与主句分开。

      As for instnanents, only those that are really needed should be bought.   至于仪器,只买那些确实需要的。

      All you have to do is to push the button.   你只需按电钮就行了。

      Is there a shop around where we can get fruit ?   周围有卖水果的商店吗?

      非限定性定语从句是先行词的附加说明,即使省去了也不影响主句的意思,因此常用逗号把它与主句分开。

      They have invited me to visit their factory, which is very kind of them.   承蒙他们的好意,他们邀请我们参观他们的工厂。

      They turned a deaf ear to our demands, which enraged all of us.   他们对我们的要求充耳不闻,这使我们都很生气。

      The activity was postponed, which was exactly what we wanted.   这项活动延期了,这正是我们的愿望。

      4.“介词+关系代词”结构

      引导定语从句时,that和who不能用于介词之后,能用于“介词+关系代词”引导定语从句的代词只有which(指物)和whom(指人)。那么,介词的选择将是一个难点,介词选择的依据是:

      (1)介词与定语从句的先行词是一种习惯性的搭配。如:

      The farm on which I once worked has taken on a new look.(比较:I once worked on the farm.)   我曾经工作过的那家农场呈现出新面貌。

      (2)介词与定语从句中的动词是一种习惯性的搭配。如:

      Whds the man with whom our teacher is shaking hands ?  ( 比较: Who (m) is our teacher shaking hands with ?)   那个正同我们老师握手的人是谁?

      (3)介词与定语从句中的形容词一起构成一种习惯性的短语。如:

      Ours is a beautiful country, of which we are greatly proud. ( 比较: We ate greatly proud of our country. )    我们的国家是个美丽的国家,我们很为她自豪。

      (4)表示“所有关系”或“整体中的部分”时,用介词of.如:

      This is a family of three children, all of whom are studying music.

      I have tried on three caps, none of which fits me well.  我试戴了三顶帽子,没有一顶合适。

    第十六节   状语从句

      状语从句在复合句中起状语的作用,修饰主句中的动词,形容词或副词等。状语从句可分为时间、地点、原因、目的、结果、让步、比较(或方式)和条件等类。

      1.时间状语从句

      时间状语从句的引导词有when,as,while,after,before,since等。

      I'll give it to him as soon as he comes back.   他一回来我就把这个给他。

      You must listen attentively and take notes while I explain the text.   当我解释课文时你必须注意听并记笔记

      Before a transaction can be entered properly, it must be analyzed in order to determine which accounts are affected by the transaction.   在完整地记录一笔经济业务之前,必须进行分析,以确定哪些账户受经济业务的影响。

      2.地点状语从句

      地点状语从句的引导词有where,wherever.

      Make a mark where you find an error.   在你发现有错的地方做个记号。

      Where a situation involves dealing with an immediate problem, a manager would investigate the incidents which led to the problem.  当情况涉及一件需要立即处理的问题时,经理应当调查是什么导致这个问题的出现。

      3.原因状语从句

      引导原因状语从句的词有because,since,as等。

      The determination of nationality is a crucial matter, because it has the potential of affecting all business operations.   确定国籍是一个关键问题,因为这个问题会影响所有的商业行为。

      Since an investment is not classified as income or expense to the business, it is not considered in the income statement.   由于一项投资不是作为企业的收入或费用来分类的,因此在收益表里不考虑它。

      4.目的状语从句

      引导目的状语从句的词有:that,so that,inorderthat等。

      We must work harder so that we may fulfil our plan ahead of schedule.    我们必须努力工作,以便能提前完成计划。

      As she walked, she dropped the seeds along the road so that she would know the way back.

      当她走路的时候,她沿路撒上种子以便她能知道回来的路。

      5.结果状语从句

      引导结果状语从句的词有so that,so…that等,如:

      The coat was so expensive that I could not afford it.  这件外套非常贵,我买不起。

      Work is of such a nature that details left to the control of the employee are limited.   工作的性质是由职员负责的细节无几。

      6.比较状语从句

      引导这类状语从句的词有:than,as,as if等。

      He worked as fast as a qualified technician.   他干起活来和一个合格的技术员一样快。

      The project was completed earlier than they had expected.   项目比他们预期的提前完成了。

      In 1994 the plant produced twice as much steel as it did in 1981.   1994年工厂的钢产量比1981年翻了一番。

      7.让步状语从句

      引导让步状语从句的词有:though, although, no matter, whatever, even if, however等。

      Although a wide variety of journals are used in business, the simplest form of journal is a twocolumn journal.    尽管企业使用的日记帐种类繁多,最简单的还是两栏式日记帐。

      We'll start on our journey even if the weather is bad.     即使天气不好,我们也要去旅行。

      8.条件状语从句

      引导条件状语从句的词有if, unless, suppose, as long as等。

      If you want to obtain data on employment opportunities, a good source is the Bulletin of the Department of Labour.   如果你想得到就业机会的材料,劳动部公报是一极好的来源。

      If he has no objection, we will carry out the plan.   如果他不反对,我们将执行计划。

      If you have any complaint you should bring them to the authority concemed.    如果你要投诉,可提交给有关当局。

    第十七节   独立结构

      独立结构通常由名词(或代词)+分词,名词(或代词)+形容词,名词(或代词)+不定式,名词(或代词)+介词短语以及名词(或代词)+副词构成。独立结构主要用在书面语中,在日常口语中较为少见。

      The girl ran quickly, her friend following.   (名词+现在分词)    女孩跑得很快,她的朋友紧随其后。

      She lay on her back, her hands crossed under her head.   (名词+过去分词)    她面朝天枕着双手躺在那里。

      She turned to him, her dark eyes brilliant and excited.   她转向他,黑黑的眼睛露出激动的神情。

      He was silent for a moment, his lips tight.   (名词+形容词)    他双唇紧闭,沉默了片刻。

      They went to the beach, all of them to stay in a hotel.   (名词+不定式)    他们去海边,所有人都住旅馆。

      The soldiers marched down the road, their rifles on their shoulders.   战士们行进在大路上,肩上扛着枪。

      Summer over, they returned to school.   (名词+副词)    夏天过去,他们返校了。

      Our work finished, we all went back home.   (时间状语)    工作干完后,我们都回家了。

      独立结构在句中作状语表示时间、原因、条件,伴随动作以及补充说明。

      Time being short, we must be in a hurry.    (原因状语)    时间不多,我们得赶快动身。

      Weather permitting, we'll go for an outing tomorrow.   (条件状语)    如果天气好的话,我们明天就去郊游。

      Given enough time, water will dissolve almost any substance.   (条件状语)    假如时间充分,水几乎可以溶解任何物质。

      He sat in a comer, his eyes fixed on the stranger.   (伴随动作)    他坐在角落里,目不转睛地盯着陌生人。

      China has the biggest population in the world, most of the people living in the countryside.  (补充说明)    中国是世界上人口最多的国家,大部分人住在农村。

    第十八节   倒装

      英语句子有两种语序:自然语序和倒装语序。主语在谓语之前时,叫自然语序;如果把谓语动词放在主语前面,这就是倒装语序。倒装语序又可分为全部倒装和部分倒装。将整个谓语放在主语之前,叫全部倒装;如果只是把助动词、情态动词或联系动词be放在主语之前,叫部分倒装。

      全部倒装:

      Ont rushed the student.   那个学生冲了出来。

      Here comes the No.9 bus.   9路公共汽车来了。

      部分倒装:

      Will you go to a show with me tonight?   今天晚上你和我去看演出好吗?

      Have you seen any good show lately? 你最近看过好的演出吗?

      用法:

      1.用于疑问句

      Do you need me now, professor?   教授,你现在需要我的帮助吗?

      2.用于以引导词there开头的固定倒装句型中

      Long long ago, there lived in Hangzhou a girl called Aqiao.   很久很久以前,有一个生活在杭州的名叫阿巧的小女孩。

      3.用于以now, then, next, out, in, up, down, away, there, here等副词开头的句子里

      They start as tiny white eggs, and when these hatch, out come little fat white worms.  它们开始是白色的小卵,而当小卵孵化的时候,就出来了白胖的小虫子。

      There goes your dinner.   你的饭来了。

      4.含有否定意义的副词或连词,hardly, never, seldom, not, not only, little, no

      sooner than, not until等放在句首

      No sooner had I started to type my paper than the telephone rang.   我刚开始打论文,电话就响了。

      5.only所修饰的副词、介词短语或状语从句放在句首时

      Only when that fails shall I leave the ship, but not before that, nor shall any of my crew.   只有当那失败了(指船全部沉入水里)我才离开船,但是在这之前我不会离开,我的任何船员也不会离开。

      6.副词so放在句首,代替上文中的形容词、名词或动词等,通常表示前面所说的情况也适用于其他人(或物)。其句型是so+be(have,do,其他助动词或情态动词)+主语

      He is a good student. So is Xiao Wu.   他是个好学生,小吴也是。

      7.neither,nor放在句首,表示前面所说的否定内容也适用于其他人(或物)。其句型是neither(nor)+be(have,do,其他助动词或情态动词)+主语。

      He can't see air. Nor can I, nor can you, nor can anybody.   他看不见空气,我看不见,你看不见,任何人都看不见。

      8.虚拟结构中的条件从句省去if时,句中的were,had,should须移至主语之前。

      例如:

      Had he not stayed up so late last night, he would not have overslept this moming and been late for work.   如果昨天晚上他睡得不这么迟,今天早上他便不会睡过头,上班迟到。

      Should you be prepared to reduce the price by 5%, we would place our order with you.   如你方能降价5%,我方可向你方订货。

      Should additional insurance coverage be required, the extra premium incurred would be for the buyers' account.   如要求投保附加险,所需额外保险费由买方支付。

      9.在某些让步从句里:

      Come what may, H1 always stand by you.   不管发生什么情况,我都支持你。

      Be it cheap or dear, I will take it.   不管它贵还是便宜,我都要买。

      Be it fine or not, I must go.   不管天晴还是下雨,我都要去。

      Be that as it may, I must do it.   即便是那样,这事我也必须做。

      Young as she was, she did the work well.   虽然她年轻,但这工作她干得很好。

      10.在某些表示祝愿的句子里:

      May you never forget me!   愿你永远记着我!

      May you all be happy!   祝你们大家快乐!

      Long live People's China!  人民中国万岁!

      11.为了保持句子平衡,或为了强调表语或状语,或使上下文紧密衔接时

      And there, glowing with a faint blue light in the glass test-tubes on the tables,  was the mysterious something which they had worked so hard to find: Radium.  在那儿,在桌上的玻璃管里,正闪烁着微弱的蓝光,这就是他们付出了极其艰辛的劳动要寻找的那种神秘的东西:镭。

      Coming up behind them were warships and gunboats.   紧跟在它们(指小船)后面的是军舰和炮艇。

    第十九节   省略句

      为了避免重复,或因习惯及结构要求,句中可有一个或几个成分被省略。被省略的有主语、谓语、表语、宾语、状语,也可以是主语和谓语或谓语的一部分,这样的句子被称为省略句。

      1.省略主语

      Beg your pardon.   请再说一遍。

      Doesn't matter.   没关系。

      2.省略谓语或谓语部分

      She was flying to England, and I to China.   她飞往英国,而我去中国。

      3.省略宾语

      She washed, and her husband ironed the shirts.   她洗衬衫,她丈夫熨。

      4.省略主谓

      What a pity (it is) you can not join us!   你不能加入我们这边,真是遗憾!

      (It is) Good to see you again!   再见到你真高兴。

      5.省略不定式

      I meant to invite you, but forgot to (invite you)。   我原本想请你的,但后来忘了。

      6.并列句中的省略

      In 1991 the number of branches of that company increased from nine to fifteen, and in 1994, to thirty.  在1991年,该公司分店从9家增至15家,到1994年又增加到30家。

      The scenery was beautiful, and the acting (was) good.  布景很漂亮,演技也好。

      The doctor tried to save her life, but (he tried) in vain.  医生设法救她的命,但没有用。

      7.在than或as引导的从句中的省略

      We should think more of others than of ourselves.  我们应当多想别人,少想自己。

      They stayed talking much longer than was strictly necessary.  他们谈了很久,严格来说用不着谈那么久。

      Owing to the late arrival of your L/C, shipment cannot be effected as stipulated.    由于你方信用证延迟到达,货物不能按期装运。

      8.在某些状语从句中,如谓语中有be,其主语和主句的主语一样,可作部分省略

      When completed, the power station will have two 25,000 kw generators.   这座发电厂建成后将有两台两万五千千瓦的发电机。

      He worked hard, though still poor in health.  他虽然身体不好,可是工作起来很卖力气。

      If necessary, I'll have the contract duplicated.   如果有必要,我要请人把合同复制一下。

      Fill the form where necessary.   在需要填的地方填表。

      If possible, I should like to have two copies of the document.   可能的话,我希望有两份文件。

    第二十节  “It”的用法

      1.代词it

      (1) 指除人以外的一切生物和事物。

      I hope it was as good as the one you lent me.   我希望它(项链)和你借给我的那条一样好。

      I knew at once that it was a gift from Father.   我立刻知道了这(钢琴)是我爸爸给我的礼物。

      The more carbon the steel contains, the harder it is.   钢含碳越多,就越硬。

      (2)在某种情况下代词“也可以指人。这时可把it看作指示代词。例如:

      Is it your brother?   是你弟弟吗?

      I didn't know it was you.   我不知道是你。

      “Oh? who was it?” Mr. Black asked.   “哦?是谁?”布莱克先生问。

      (3)it作无人称代词时,通常在句中作形式主语,用来表示自然现象、时间、距离等。

      ① It is nine sharp now. 现在是九点正。

      ② It is very hot today.  今天天气很热。

      ③ It is far to the airport.   到飞机场很远。

      ④ It is about 17ff million kilometres from the earth to the sun.   从地球到太阳约一亿七千万公里。

      2.引导词it

      (1)作形式主语,代替由不定式(或不定式复合结构)、动名词或从句表示的真正的主语。

      As a student, it is bad manners to come late to class.   作为一个学生,上课迟到是没有礼貌的。

      It is possible that he will find the lost stamp.   他有可能找到遗失了的邮票。

      (2)作形式宾语,代替其后所说的真正的宾语。真正的宾语是由不定式、动名词或从句表示的。

      This has made it necessary for agriculture and industry to develop very quickly.  这就使得工农业必须飞速发展。

      You may think it strange that anyone would live there.  你也许感到奇怪,居然有人愿意住在那儿。

      The invention of radio has made it possible for mankind to communicate with each other ever a long distance.   无线电的发明使人类有可能进行远距离通讯联络。

      3.用于强调结构中的it

      为了强调句子的某一部分(通常是主语、宾语或状语),常用it作先行代词,这种

      结构的句型是:It+is(was)+被强调的部分+that(或who)+其他部分,如果强调的

      部分是人时须用who,而不用that.

      It is the force of gravity that makes heavy things fall toward the ground.   (强调主语)    是地心引力使重物落向地面。

      It is from the sun that we get light and heat.   (强调状语)    正是从太阳那里我们得到了光和热。

      It was the goals eyes that he had seen in the darkness.  他在黑暗中看见的是山羊的眼睛。(强调宾语)